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Pensée shi’ite primitive : les Enseignements de l’Imam Muhammad al-Baqir


Londres, I.B. Tauris en association avec The Institute of Ismaili Studies, 2000. 256 pp.

ISBN (Hardback): 1 86064 434 1
ISBN (Paperback): 1 8503 592 8
Synopsis

Download PDF version of Introduction (54.1 KB)

Le Dr Arzina Lalani révèle dans cette étude la contribution essentielle de l’Imam Muhammad al-Baqir à la période de formation de la pensée islamique. Elle utilise pour ce faire, des sources shi’ites largement inexploitées jusqu’ici, qu’elles soient publiées ou sous forme de manuscrits. L’auteur se penche sur le rôle de l’Imam al-Baqir dans le développement de la pensée shi’ite primitive et analyse son exposé de la loi et de la théologie shi’ites. Cet ouvrage est le premier à s’intéresser au rôle décisif que joua al-Baqir dans l’énonciation des principales doctrines shi’ites (notamment sur la nature de l’Imamat et la transmission de la connaissance), ainsi que dans leur application dans les domaines religieux, théologique, judiciaire et éthique de l’Islam.

Les enseignements de l’Imam al-Baqir proviennent d’une période de l’histoire au cours de laquelle les débats sur les doctrines religieuses étaient au centre de la vie intellectuelle de la communauté musulmane, et notamment de sa vie politique, et ne relevaient pas encore du domaine spéculatif exclusif des théologiens professionnels. La fin du 1er siècle et le début du 2ème siècle de l’Islam furent des périodes cruciales pour l’élaboration des fondements des études qur’aniques. La plupart des débats se déroulaient à Médine, lieu de résidence d’al-Baqir et centre de l’érudition religieuse depuis l’époque du Prophète.

A sa mort, al-Baqir avait non seulement contribué à donner aux Shi’ites le contexte savant de l’énonciation de leur conception de l’Imamat, mais il avait également jeté les fondements d’une école de jurisprudence spécifique, le madhhab ahl al-bayt, avec des positions bien définies sur divers aspect du fiqh (jurisprudence).

Dans l’histoire de la pensée islamique, l’époque d’al-Baqir fut une période de grande effervescence intellectuelle : les débats et les divergences dans la communauté s’y focalisèrent sur la question de l’autorité. Les discussions théologiques portèrent également sur des sujets tels que iman, Islam et qada wa qadar. Les différentes écoles théologiques et les mouvements politico-religieux de l’époque, comme les Khawarij, les Murji’a et les Qadariyya, ainsi que les communautés shi’ites des Kaysaniyya et des Zaydiyya cherchèrent, chacun à sa façon, à formuler des réponses à ces questions.

L’ouvrage montre comment le concept de l’Imamat fut énoncé en se fondant sur le Qur’an et la Tradition prophétique. L’accent fut mis de façon extrêmement importante et à point nommé, sur la nature héréditaire de l’Imamat car nombreux étaient ceux qui avaient fini par croire que cette institution ne relevait que de la politique.

L’ouvrage aborde également la théorie formulée par l’Imam al-Baqir selon laquelle l’Imam est investi du ‘ilm, ou ‘véritable connaissance’. C’est cette théorie qui a constitué le fondement du droit et de la théologie shi’ites issus du cercle de ses adeptes au cours des années suivantes et qui ne furent formalisés qu’à l’époque de son fils, l’Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq.

L’Imam al-Baqir, également appelé Abu Ja’far d’après son fils aîné, était né à Médine en 57/677 vers l’époque où Mu’awiya tentait d’obtenir l’allégeance pour son fils Yazid. Son nom complet était Muhammad b. Ali b. al-Husayn. Cependant, il était plus connu sous le laqab ou épithète de ‘al-Baqir’, abréviation de baqir al-‘ilm qui signifie ‘celui qui dévoile la connaissance’ ou ‘celui qui est versé en connaissances’. Ce laqab le relie à une tradition shi’ite remontant au Prophète.

La fonction à laquelle le titre de ‘al-Baqir’ fait référence est précisément celle conférée à l’imam. Sa capacité à ‘dévoiler’ la connaissance apparaît clairement dans un grand nombre de traditions qui nous sont parvenues depuis, à travers divers ouvrages shi’ites de toutes obédiences, qu’ils soient zaydites, ithna’asharites ou ismaéliens, et sur lesquels s’appuie le Dr Lalani. L’auteur apporte une contribution importante à l’étude de l’Islam primitif en révélant le rôle de l’Imam al-Baqir qui fut l’un des premiers et des plus prééminents défenseurs des doctrines shi’ites. L’importance de ses traditions dans la littérature savante du shi’isme et les contributions très édifiantes qu’elles représentent, nous laissent entrevoir une personnalité remarquable. L’Imam al-Baqir mérite d’être reconnu comme l’une des figures les plus exceptionnelles de l’histoire du Shi’isme et un acteur majeur dans l’élaboration de la pensée islamique primitive en général


 



Contents

Abbreviations

The Banu Hashim and Early Shi‘i Imams

  1. Introduction
  2. The Idea of the Imamate Before al–Baqir
    Early Disputes about the Leadership of the Community
    Al–Husayn and Karbala
    The Aftermath of Karbala
    The Kaysaniyya
  3. Aspects of al–Baqir’s Life and Career
    Al–Baqir’s Laqab and Succession
    Al–Baqir’s Rivals
    Al–Baqir and Zayd
    Al–Baqir and the Ghulat
    The Controversy Over the Time of al–Baqir’s Death
  4. Al–Baqir’s Views on the Imamate
    The Qur’anic Basis of the Imamate
    The Hadith Basis of the Imamate
    The Theology of the Imamate
  5. Al–Baqir’s Views on Some Key Theological Issues
    Iman (Faith)
    Taqiyya
    Qada’ was Qadar
    Tawhid
  6. Al–Baqir in Traditionalist Circles
    Non–Shi‘i Circles
    Transmitters of al–Baqir
    The Shi‘i Circle
    Shi‘i Associates of al–Baqir
  7. 6. Al–Baqir’s Contribution to Shi‘i Jurisprudence
    Some Legal Problems Common to the Various Shi‘i Groups
    Mash ‘ala al–khuffayn
    Nabidh
    al–Jahr bi Bismillah
    The Adhan or the Call to the Ritual Prayer
    Qunnut
    Salat al–Janaza

Epilogue

Notes

Bibliography

Index



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Content Date: Février 2000

The Institute of Ismaili Studies - Pensée shi’ite primitive : les Enseignements de l’Imam Muhammad al-Baqir
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