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  • الحياة في القاهرة التاريخية: الماضي والحاضر في مدينة إسلامية

    نشر من قبل أزيموث إيديشنز بالتعاون مع معهد الدراسات الإسماعيلية ومنشورات جامعة واشنطن.

    ISBN HardBack:
    9781898592280

  •  

    تأسست مدينة القاهرة في عام ٣٥٨ هـ / ٩٦٩ م كعاصمة ملكية جديدة للفاطميين، وهم سلالة شيعية إسماعيلية حكمت إمبراطورية مزدهرة لمدة ٢٦٢ عاماً حتى سقوط حكمهم في عام ٥٦٧ هـ/ ١١٧١ م. حافظت القاهرة بعد ذلك على مكانتها كعاصمة رئيسية تحت حكم الأيوبيين والمماليك، الذين أسسوا دولهم على أجزاء واسعة من العالم الإسلامي. في سياق تاريخها وحتى نهاية الحكم العثماني على مصر، نافست القاهرة وتخطّت في بعض الأحيان، في تطورها الحضري والثقافي، إنجازات المدن الإسلامية الأخرى في المنطقة: بغداد ودمشق وقرطبة. دخلت هذه المدن في العصر الحديث في مراحل مختلفة من النكسات، بسبب التغيرات الهائلة في المصائر السياسية والتحولات الديموغرافية.وبعد ذلك، أدت مجموعة من المشاكل التنموية، ولا سيما النمو السكاني والفقر المدقع والصراعات الإقليمية إلى إهمال مدينة القاهرة التاريخية والتركيز بدلاً عن ذلك على الآثار الفرعونية القديمة.


    قدمت في الآونة الأخيرة فرصة لجزء من القاهرة، معروف حالياً بالدرب الأحمر، من خلال أنشطة مؤسسة الآغا خان للثقافة (AKTC) بالتعاون مع مجموعة متنوعة من الوكالات الأخرى. لم يكن الهدف من هذا العمل التعاوني إستعادة الصروح التاريخية في الدرب الأحمر وحسب، ولكن أيضاً تحسين البنية الإجتماعية والاقتصادية للمنطقة وذلك من أجل تحسين الأوضاع المعيشية للحرفيين، والسكان الآخرين.


    تم إنتاج فيلم تعليمي، في عام ٢٠٠١، باللغتين الإنكليزية والعربية، يركز على جوار حي الدرب الأحمر. كان عنوان الفيلم: ’الحياة مع الماضي: القاهرة التاريخية‘، وقد سعى إلى عرض المدينة في الماضي والحاضر. يهدف هذا الكتاب، والذي أنتج في الأصل كملحق للفيلم، إلى طرح القصة الكاملة للمشروع التعاوني في منطقة الدرب الأحمر ضمن السياق الأوسع لتاريخ مدينة القاهرة.إنه محاولة لتصحيح الفهم السطحي التقليدي للعملية التاريخية، إذ يدرس القاهرة منذ بداياتها الأولى وحتى يومنا هذا، من حيث العلاقة بين التخطيط المادي والمباني التاريخية والحياة الإقتصادية والإجتماعية والثقافية والدينية. كما ويعكس الروابط الحيوية بين الماضي والحاضر.


    يفتتح الجزء الأول بلمحة تاريخية عن تطور المدينة، كتبها أيمن فؤاد سيد؛ تليها مقدمة كتبها ناصر رباط عن عمليات الترميم في حي الدرب الأحمر. تمهد مناقشة عن رحلة ناصر خسرو التي تصف القاهرة في القرن الحادي عشر الطريق لمزيد من المقالات عن مواضيع أخرى محددة تدرس جوانب مختلفة من الحياة- المؤسسات الإقتصادية (قاسم أ. قاسم، باسكال غزالة وكريستين ستيلت)، التعليم (هاينز هالم)، الزواج والأسرة (أميرة سنبل)، الإيمان والعبادة (روي متحدة، نورمان أ. ستيلمان وفيب أرمانيوس)، الفن والهندسة المعمارية (كارولين وليامز وفهميدا سليمان)، والموسيقى (جوناثان شانون). ويختتمالجزء الأول بملاحظات رندة أبو بكر حول ذكر المدينة القديمة من خلال الأعمال الأدبية الحديثة لنجيب محفوظ وجمال الغيطاني، وبمناقشة اليزابيث بيشوب لعمل علي مبارك باشا، أحد الإصلاحيين المعروفين في مصر في القرن التاسع عشر.


    يشير الجزء الثاني إلى الوقت الحاضر، ولكن دائماً في ما يتعلق بالماضي. دوّن اثنين من فريق خدمات الآغا خان الثقافية (مصر)، كريم إبراهيم وسيف الرشيدي، ملاحظاتهما الخاصة عن رحلتهما لزيارة الدرب الأحمر للمرة الأولى في القرن العشرين. قدم كاميران أسدار علي ومارتينا ريكر معلومات أساسية لفهم مخطط علي مبارك باشا والتغييرات اللاحقة في الخطط الحديثة لتحسين القاهرة. يشير راجوي أسعد إلى الصلة بين النقابات التاريخية والتوقعات والممارسات لسوق العمل المعاصرة في مصر. يلي ذلك مجموعة من المقالات حول الحفاظ على صروح محددة في القاهرة التاريخية:
    يصف روبرت ك. فنسنت جونير ونيري هامبكيان وأنيسكا دوبرولسكا، الجهود المؤسساتية. يناقش صلاح زكي سعيد التجديد التعاوني للمنازل القديمة ويضع هشام وعلي محمود الخطوط العريضة للمجتمع المحلي الناجح الذي تعهد بترميم مسجد قجماس.


    ويشمل المقطع التالي الذي كتبه ستيفانو بيانكا من (AKTC)، محمد مكاوي، المدير العام لإدارة مشروع القاهرة، ومحمد عبد الحافظ، الذي يركز عمله بشكل خاص على الجوانب الإجتماعية والإقتصادية، أوصاف إعادة إحياء النسيج الإجتماعي والإقتصادي في الدرب الأحمر من قبل شبكة الآغا خان للتنمية، التي يراه المراقبون كنموذج لعمل ممكن في المناطق المدنية البائسة الأخرى.


    يختتم المجلد بمقالتين مختلفتين تماماً. تقدمدينا شهيب وأحمد صدقي طريقة جديدة للنظر إلى هذه الأحياء، البائسة الآن ولكنها كانت متألقة سابقاً، كمخازن للقيم الثقافية والإجتماعية والتراث الوطني، وتصف ميسون الباجه جي، التي أخرجت الفيلم الوثائقي ’العيش مع الماضي‘، التحديات التي واجهتها لتصوير الدرب الأحمر في الفيلم.


    ويأمل أن يؤدي هذا المشروع الطموح الذي يقدمه هذا المجلد إلى مزيد من البحوث المستقبلية المتعددة التخصصات في المجتمع والحياة في سياق التشكيلات الهيكلية في المناطق التاريخية الهامة من المدن الكبرى في العالم.

    صفحات ذات صلة على موقع معهد الدراسات الإسماعيلية:

    ’الحياة في القاهرة التاريخية‘: منشور جديد متعدد التخصصات

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