• The major civilisations of the world have all had philosophical traditions cultivated in the bosom of that civilisation, if we understand philosophy in its traditional and universal sense. Only a few, however, have borne witness to a continuous tradition that has left behind written texts as well as an oral transmission. Among these few civilisations, one can name the Chinese, the Indian, the Western and the Persian, which in its later phase became integrated into Islamic philosophy and embraced lands beyond Persia. The Persian people were given to philosophical speculation from the beginning of the historical period as we see in accounts of many Greek philosophers and thinkers.

    In the larger sense of the term, philosophia, and not in its analytical sense only, the Persian philosophical tradition extends back into the dawn of history and continues to this day. For the purposes of this volume, we divided the long history of Persia into the pre-Islamic, beginning with Zoroaster, and the Islamic. The pre-Islamic segment of this volume introduces sections of major works of Zoroastrian and Manichaean traditions, which contain important philosophical and cosmological ideas that also influenced the Greek as well as the Christian worlds. As for the Islamic period, it is divided into distinct schools. The historical development of philosophical thought was the basis for the division of the time period under consideration and was also the framework for the selections.

    The texts translated and introduced are limited to Persia proper, excluding works written in Persian in India, the Ottoman Empire and elsewhere. In some cases, such as Iraq and Afghanistan, it is difficult to draw the boundaries due to close intellectual interactions and the philosophers who have lived all sides of the so called “border.” Within Persia, both Persian and Arabic works are included, the latter being the scholarly language of most Muslim scholars.

    In the pre-Islamic period, one does not draw an exact boundary between philosophy and religious cosmology, or between philosophical and religious ethics. In the Islamic period the matter becomes even more difficult because of the flowering of intellectual activity with so many diverse schools of thought. There is first of all the distinct discipline called falsafah, which is obviously at the heart of the philosophical tradition that is the subject of these volumes. It must be pointed out that the term philosophy, understood in English, is not exactly the equivalent of falsafah. Moreover, even traditionally understood, philosophy is also to be found in disciplines distinct from falsafah such as theology (kalaminfo-icon) and gnosis (irfaninfo-icon). The boundary between philosophy and theology or philosophy and doctrinal Sufisminfo-icon in Muslim Persia and in Islamic thought in general are not as distinct as is the case in modern Western philosophy.

    This volume, in the form of an anthology, is the first in English, to deal with several centuries of philosophical thought in Persia stretching from the lesser known pre-Islamic period to the Islamic era. It encompasses such philosophical schools as the Peripatetics and its major exponents, figures like Farabi, Avicenna, as well such independent philosophers as Razi, Biruni and Khayyam.

    The Anthology is expected to fill a gap in the field of Islamic philosophy and Persian thought, and to demonstrate that Islamic philosophy is a living tradition in Persia and did not come to an end in the 7th century after Ibn Rushd, as some have argued. Furthermore, the Anthology provides a variety of writings by Persian philosophers and demonstrates how rich and diverse Persian philosophical edifices are, both in content and format. The first volume of An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia in a sense provides the first chapter of a living philosophical tradition that stretches over several thousand years and remains a living tradition up until today.

  • Preface M. Aminrazavi xiii

    List of Reprinted Works xvii

    Note on Transliteration xix

    List of Contributors xxi

    Prolegomenon S. H. Nasr 1 



    Introduction M. Aminrazavi

    1. Original Creation (from Bundahisn) 16

    2. Greater Bundahisn 27

    3. The Answers of Manuskihar (from Dadistan-i Dinik) 35

    4. Opinions of the Spirit of Wisdom (from Dina-i Mainog-i Khirad) 44

    5. Selected Readings 53

    6. Exegesis of the Good Religion (from Denkard VI) 88



    Introduction M. Aminrazavi 105


    7. Central Principles (from the Kephalaia) 108


    Introduction S. H. Nasr 127

    8. Abu’l ‘Abbas Muhammad Iranshahri 130

    Introduction M. Aminrazavi

    The Ideas of Iranshahri (from Zad al-musafirin) 132

    9. Abu Nasr Farabi 134

    Introduction S. H. Nasr 134

    A Paraphrase of Aristotle’s Analytica Posteriora (from Kitab al-burhan) 137

    A Reconciliation of the Opinions of the Two Sages, Divine Plato and Aristotle (from Kitab al-jam' bayn ra’yay al-hakimayn Aflatun al-ilahi wa Aristu) 155

    The Perfect State (from Mabadi’ ara’ ahl al-madinat al-fadilah) 164


    10. Abu’l-Hasan Amiri 180

    Introduction S. H. Nasr 180

    Knowledge and the Religious Sciences (from al-I'lam bi manaqib al-Islam) 182

    On the Soul and its Fate (from al-Amad 'alal-abadi) 207

    11. Abu Sulayman Sijistani 216

    Introduction M. Aminrazavi 216

    Philosophical Treatises (Musannafat) 218

    12. Ibn Sina 243

    Introduction S. H. Nasr  243

    Metaphysics (from Danish-namah-yi 'ala’i) 247

    Creation Ex-Nihilo and Immediate Creation (from al-Isharat wa’l-tanbihat) 269

    On Theodicy and Providence I (from al-Shifa’) 277

    On Theodicy and Providence II (from al-Isharat wa'l-tanbihati  289

    On Time (from al-Shifa') 292

    The Stations of the Knowers (from al-Isharat wa’l-tanbihat) 303

    Living Son of the Awake (from Risalah Hayy ibn Yaqzan) 312

    Introduction (from Mantiq al-mashraqiyyin) 321

    13. Abu ‘Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad Miskawayh 323

    Introduction S. H. Nasr 323

    Perennial Philosophy (Wisdom) (from al-Hikmatinfo-icon al-khalidan or jawidan-khirad) 326

    The Health of the Soul'(from Tahdhib al-akhlaq) 356

    14. Bahmanyar ibn Marzban 388

    Introduction M. Aminrazavi 388

    Author’s Foreword (from Kitab al-tahsil) 390


    Introduction S. H. Nasr 409


    15. Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariyya’ Razi 411

    Introduction M. Aminrazavi 411

    Of the Excellence and Praise of Reason (from al-Tibb ai-ruhani) 414

    The Book of the Philosophic Life (from al-Sirat al-falsafiyyah) 424


    16. Abu Rayhan Biruni 434

    Introduction S. H. Nasr 434

    The Belief of the Hindus in God (from Tahqio ma li'l-Hind) 437

    Questions and Answers (from al-As’ilah wa’l-ajwibah) 459


    17. ‘Umar Khayyam 474

    Introduction M. Aminrazavi 474

    The Necessity of Contradiction, Free Will and Determinism (Darurat al-tadadd fi’l-‘alaminfo-icon wa’l-jabrinfo-icon wa’i-baqa’) 476

    Universals of Existence (Kulliyyat-i wujudinfo-icon) 481

    Select Bibliography 485

    Index 496
  • Primary Sources

    al-‘Amiri, Abu’l-Hasan. al-Amad ‘ala’l-abad (A Muslim Philosopher on the Soul and its Fate: al-‘Amiri’s Kitab al-Amad ‘ala’l-abad), ed. and tr. E. K. Rowson. New Haven, CT, 1988.

    — — al-I‘lam bi-manaqib al-Islam, ed. A. A. Ghorab. Cairo, 1967.

    al-Andalusi, S. Tabaqat al-umam. Najaf, 1967.

    Bahmanyar b. Marzban, Fi maratib al-mawjudat, ed. and tr. S. Poper, in Behmenjar Ben El-Marzuban, der persische Aristoteliker aus Avicenna’s Schule: Zwei metaphysische Abhandlungen von ihm arabisch und deutsch mit Anmerkungen. Leipzig, 1851, pp. 17-28 (trans. pp. 24-47).

    — — Fi mawdu‘ ‘ilminfo-icon ma ba‘d al-tabi‘ah (On the Subject of the Science of Metaphysics), ed. and tr. S. Poper. Cairo, 1329/1911.

    — — Kitab al-tahsil, ed. M. Mutahhari. Tehran, 1349 Sh./1970. Partial Russian trans., A. V. Sagadeev in Kniga Pervaya. Perevods arabskogo vodnaya stat’ya i kommentarii. Baku, 1983.

    Bayhaqi, Zahirinfo-icon aI-Dininfo-icon ‘Ali. Ta’rikh hukama’ al-Islam. Damascus, 1972.

    — — Tatimmah siwan al-hikmahinfo-icon. Lahore, 1351/1935.

    al-Biruni, Abu Rayhan. Kitab al-athar al-baqiyah ‘an al-qurun al-khaliyah, ed. E. C. Sachau. Leipzig, 1878.

    — — The Chronology of Ancient Nations, tr. E. C. Sachau. New York, 1984.

    — — Epitre de Beruni contenant le repertoire des ouvrages de Muhammad Zakariyya al Razi, ed. and tr. P. Kraus. Paris, 1936.

    — — Fi tahqiq ma li’l-Hind, ed. E. C. Sachau. Leipzig, 1925.

    — — Kitab al-jamahir fi ma‘rifat al-jawahir, ed. E. Krenkow. Hyderabad, 1936.

    — — al-Qanun al-mas‘udi. Hyderabad, 1334/1915.

    — — Das Vorwort zur Drogenkunde des Beruni, tr. with preface by M. Meyerhof. Berlin, 1932.

    — — al-Farabi, Abu Nasrinfo-icon. al-Farabi’s Commentary and Short Treatise on Aristotle’s ‘De interpretatione’, ed. and tr. F. W. Zimmermann. Oxford, 1981.

    — — al-Farabi on the Perfect State: Abu Nasr al-Farabi’s Mabadi’ ara’ ahl al-madinah al-fadilah, ed. and tr. R. Walzer. Oxford, 1985.

    — — al-Farabi’s Philosophy of Plato and Aristotle, tr. M. Mahdiinfo-icon. New York, 1962.

    — — Alfarabius compendium legum Platonis. Vol. 3, Plato Arabus, ed. and tr. F. Gabrieli. London, 1951.

    — — (Alfarabius) De Platonis Philosophia, ed. and tr. F. Rosenthal and R. Walzer. London, 1943.

    — — Deux ouvrages inedits sur la rhetorique, ed. and tr. Jacques Langhade and Mario Grignaschi. Beirut, 1971.

    — — Deux traites philosophiques, tr. D. Mallet. Damascus, 1989.

    — — Kitab al-burhan, ed. M. Fakhry. Beirut, 1987.

    — — Kitab al-jam‘ bayn ra’yay al-hakimayn, Aflatun al-ilahi wa-Aristu, ed. A. N. Nadir. Beirut, 1960.

    — — ‘Le traite d’al-Farabi sur les buts de la metaphysique d’Aristote’, tr. T. A. Druart. Bulletin de Philosophie medievale, 24 (1982), pp. 38-43.

    — — ‘The Letter Concerning the Intellect’, tr. A. Hyman, in A. Hyman and J. J. Walsh, ed., Philosophy in the Middle Ages: The Christian, Islamic and Jewish Traditions. 2nd ed., ed., Indianapolis, MI, 1973, pp. 215-221.

    Hajji Khalifah. Kashf al-zunun. Istanbul, 1310/1892.

    Ibn Abi Usaybi‘ah. Uyuninfo-icon al-anba’. Beirut, 1915; 2nd ed. 1965.

    Ibn al-Athir, ‘Izz al-Dininfo-icon ‘Ali. al-Kamil fi’l-ta’rikh. Beirut, 1386/1966.

    Ibn Hazm, Abu Muhammad ‘Ali. Fada’il al-Andalus wa ahluha. Beirut, 1968.

    Ibn Khallikan, Abu’l-‘Abbas Ahmad, Wafayat al-a‘yan. Beirut, 1969-1971.

    Ibn al-Nadim, Muhammad b. Ishaq. al-Fihrist, tr. B. Dodge. New York, 1970.

    Ibn al-Qifti. Ta’rikh al-hukama’. Delhi, 1903.

    Ibn Sina. Avicenna’s De Anima, ed. F. Rahman. London, 1959.

    — — Avicenna’s Psychology, tr. F. Rahman. London, 1952.

    — — A Treatise on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna Incorporating a Translation of the First Book, tr. O. C. Gruner. London, 1930.

    — — Danish-namah-yi ‘ala’i, ed. M. Mu’in. Tehran, 1331 Sh./1952. French trans. M. Achena and H. Masse as Le Livre de science. Paris, 1955-1958.

    — — Remarks and Admonitions, Part One: Logic, tr. Sh. Inati. Toronto, 1984.

    — — al-Isharat wa’l-tanbihat, ed. S. Dunyainfo-icon. Cairo, 1957-1960.

    — — Le Livre des directives et remarques: Kitab al-isharat wa’l-tanbihat, tr. A.M. Goichon. Beirut, 1951.

    — — ‘Le poeme de l’ame, tr. H. Masse. La Revue du Caire, 27 (1951), pp. 7-9.

    — — Poeme de la medicine-urguza fi’l-tibb, ed. and tr. A. Jahier and H. Noureddine. Paris, 1956.

    — — al-Oasidat al-‘ayniyyah (Ode on the Soul), tr. A. J. Arberry in G. M. Wickens, Avicenna, Scientist and Philosopher: A Millenary Symposium. London, 1952.

    — — ‘Risalah fi’l-‘ishq’, tr. E. L. Fackenheim. Medieval Studies, 7 (1945), pp. 208-228.

    — — al-Shifa’: al-Ilahiyyat, ed. G. Anawati and S. Zayid, Cairo, 1960.

    Juzjani, Abu ‘Ubayd. Sirat al-Shaykhinfo-icon al-Ra’is, ed. and tr. W. E. Gohlman as The Life of Ibn Sina: A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation. Albany, NY, 1974.

    Khwansari, Muhammad Baqir. Rawdat al-jannat. Tehran, 1341 Sh./1962.

    al-Mas‘udi, Abu’l-Hasan ‘Ali. al-Tanbih wa’l-ishraf. Cairo, 1960.

    Miskawayh, Abu ‘Ali Ahmad. An Unpublished Treatise of Miskawayh on Justice or Risalah fi mahiyyat al-‘adlinfo-icon li-Miskawayn ed. M. Khan. Leiden, 1964.

    — — al-Hikmatinfo-icon al-khalidah: Jawidan khirad, ed. ‘A. Badawi, Tehran, 1358 Sh./1979.

    — — Tajarib al-umam, ed. A. Emami. Tehran, 1366 Sh./1987.

    — — The Refinement of Character (Tahdhib al-akhlaq) ed. and tr. C. K. Zurayk. Beirut, 1967.

    Nasir-i Khusraw. Zad al-musafirin. ed. M. Badl al-Rahman. Berlin, 1341/1923.

    Nizam al-Mulk. Siyasat-namah. Tehran, 1369 Sh./1990.

    Nizami ‘Arudi. Chahar-maqalah, ed. M. Qazwini and M. Mu‘in. 3rd ed. Tehran, 1333 Sh./1954.

    Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad Zakariyya’. ‘Extracts of a Correspondence between Abu Hatim al-Razi (from his A‘lam al-nubuwwainfo-icon) and Zakariyya’ Razi, tr. F. Brion in Bulletin de Philosophie medievale, 28 (1986) pp. 134-162.

    — — La Physiognomie arabe et le Kitab al-firasa de Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, ed. P.Gauthner. Paris, 1939.

    — — Kitab al-sirat al-falsafiyah (Rhazes on the Philosophic Life), French tr., P. Kraus) ‘Raziana I’, Orientalia, 4 (1935) pp. 300-334; rev. ed. in Abi Bakr Mohammadi filii Zachariae Raghensis (Razis), Opera Philosophica, ed. P. Kraus. Paris-Cairo, 1939, PP.99-11l.

    — — al-Sirat al-falsafiyyah (The Philosophical Life) tr. A. J. Arberry. Tehran, 1964.

    — — The Spiritual Physick of Rhazes, tr. A. J. Arberry. London, 1950.

    — — Traite sur le calcul, les reins et la vessie, tr. P. de Koning. Leiden, 1896.

    Shahrazuri, Shams al-Din Muhammad, Nuzhat al-arwah. Alexandria, 1993.

    Tabrizi, M. ‘A. Rayhanat al-adabinfo-icon. Tehran, 1332 Sh./1953.

    Tawhidi, Abu Hayyan. al-Imta‘ wa’l-mu’anasa. Cairo 1939-44.

    Tuqan, Q. H. Turath al-‘arab al-‘ilmi. Cairo, 1963.

    Yaqut al-Hamawi, Shihab al-Din. Mu‘jam al-udaba’. Cairo, 1936.

    Secondary Sources

    Abed, S. B. Aristotelian Logic and the Arabic Language in Alfarabi. Albany, NY, 1991.

    Abu Rayyan, M. A. ‘La critique de la philosophie d’Avicenna par Abu’l-Barakat al-Baghdadi, Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts: University of Egypt) 7 (1958) pp. 17-60.

    Afnan, S. M. Avicenna, His Life and Works. London, 1958.

    Ahmad, N. ‘Some Less Known Writings of ‘Umar Khayyam’ Oriental College Magazine, 35 (1959), pp. 1-24.

    Ahmad, Z. ‘A1-Biruni, His Life and His Works’, Islamic Culture, 5 (1931), pp. 343-351.

    Allard, M. ‘Un philosophe theologien: Muhammad b. Yusuf al-‘Amiri’, Revue de l’Histoire des Religions, 187 (1975), pp. 57-69.

    Alonso, M. A. ‘Ibn Sina y sus primera influencias en el Mundo Latino’, Revista del Instituto Egypcio de Estudios Islamicos, 1 (1953), p. 36-57.

    — — ‘La “al-anniya” de Avicenna y el problema de la esencia y existencia’, Pensamiento, 14 (1958), pp. 311-346.

    Amedroz, H. F. ‘Note on the Historian’, in L. Caetani, ed., The Tajarib al-umam or History of Ibn Miskawayh, reproduction in facsimile from the Ayainfo-icon Sofiya Ms. in Constantinople, vol. 1, pp. xvii-xxvii.

    Amid, A. M. Essai sur la psychologie d’Avicenne. Geneva, 1940.

    Aminrazavi, M. ‘Iranshahri: Life and Views on Time and Space’, Islamic Studies, 31 (1992), pp. 479-486.

    — — Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination. Richmond, UK, 1997.

    — — The Wine of Wisdom: The Life, Poetry and Philosophy of Omar Khayyam. Oxford, 2005.

    Anawati, G. C. Essai de bibliographie avicennienne. Cairo, 1950.

    — — ‘La destinee de l’homme dans la philosophie d’Avicenne. L’Homme et son destin’. Actes du ler Congres International de Philosophie Medievale. Louvain, 1955, pp. 257-266.

    — — Etudes de philosophie musulmane. Paris, 1974.

    — — and L. Gardet. Introduction a la theologie musulmane. Paris, 1948. Ansari, A. H. The Ethical Philosophy of Miskawayh. Aligarh, 1964.

    — — ‘Miskawayh’s Conception of God, the Universe and Man’, Islamic Culture, 37 (1963), pp.131-144.

    Archibald, R. C. ‘Notes on ‘Omar Khayyam (1050-1122) and Recent Discoveries’, Pi Mu Epsilon Journal, 1 (1953), pp. 350-358.

    Arkoun, M. ‘Deux epitres de Miskawayh’, Bulletin d’Etudes Orientales, 17 (1961), pp. 7-74.

    — — ‘A propos d’une edition recente du Kitab tahdhib al-akhlaq’, Arabica, 9 (1962), pp.


    — — ‘Texts inedits de Miskawayh’, Annales Islamologiques, 5 (1963), pp. 181-205.

    — — ‘Notes et documents Miskawayh: de l’intellect et de l’intelligible’, Arabica, 11 (1964), pp.80-87.

    — — Contribution a l’etude de l‘humanisme arabe au ive/xe siecle. Paris, 1970.

    — — ‘Logocentrisme et verite religieuse dans la pensee islamique d’apres al-I‘lam bi-manaqib al-Islam d’al-‘Amiri’, Studia Islamica, 35 (1972), pp. 5-52.

    Arnaldez, R. Conception et pratique de la science chez Avicenne et Biruni. Karachi, 1973.

    — — ‘La science ‘arabe a travers l’oeuvre de Biruni’, Lumieres arabes sur l’occident medieval (1978), pp. 41-54.

    Azkai, P. Karnamah-yi Biruni (Essai bibliographique) d’apres Biruni et Boilot. Tehran, 1973.

    Badawi, ‘A. Mubahathat, in Aristu ‘ind al-‘arab. Cairo, 1947.

    — — ‘Miskawayh’ in M. M. Sharifinfo-icon, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy. Wiesbaden, 1963, vol. I, pp. 469-479.

    — — Ta‘liqat. Cairo, 1973.

    Bamdad, M. Sharh-i hal-i rijal-i Iran. Tehran, 1347-1350 Sh./1968:-197l.

    Bausani, A. ‘Al-Biruni, un genio del x secolo’, Islam: Storia e Civilta, 4 (1985), pp. 5-15.

    — — ‘Some Considerations of Three Problems of the Anti-Aristotelian Controversy between al-Biruni and Ibn Sina’ Akten Kongresse fur Arabistik, 7 (1974, 1976), pp. 74-85.

    Beale, Th. W. An Oriental Biographical Dictionary, rev. ed. Henry G. Keene. London, 1894.

    Beveridge, H. ‘‘Omar Khayyam’, JRAS, 1 (1909), pp. 124-125.

    Bhat, B. Abu ‘Ali Miskawayh: A Study of His Historical and Social Thought. New Delhi, 1953; 2nd ed., 1991.

    Biesterfeldt, H. ‘Abu’l-Hasan al-‘Amiri und die Wissenschaften’, Zeitschrift der deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft, Supplement II, 1:XIX. Wiesbaden, 1977.

    Boilot, D. J. ‘L’oeuvre d’al-Biruni, Essai bibliographique’, Institut Dominicain d’Etudes Orientales du Caire, Melanges, 2 (1955), pp. 161-256.

    Bowen, H. ‘‘Umar Khayyam and a Relative of Nizam al-Mulk’, BSOAS, 6 (1930), pp. 274-275.

    Bolotnikov, A. ‘Omar Khayyam (filosof-poet-matematick)’, Na rubezhe vostoka, 1(1930), pp. 97-18; 2, pp. 93-111.

    Boyce, M. A History of Zoroastrianism. Leiden, 1982.

    — — Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism. Manchester, 1984.

    Boyle, A. ‘‘Umar Khayyam: Astronomer, Mathematician and Poet’, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, 52 (1969), pp. 30-45.

    Brockelmann, C. Geschichte der arabischen Literatur. Weimar, 1898-1902; 2nd ed., Leiden, 1943-1949; Supplement, 1937-1942.

    Browne, E. G. A Literary History of Persia. London and Cambridge, 1902-1904.

    Cahen, C. Introduction a l’histoire du monde musulman medieval: VIIe-XVe siecle. Paris, 1982.

    Carra de Vaux. Avicenne. Paris, 1939.

    — — Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Sina. Paris, 1939.

    — — La Philosophie d'Avicenne et son influence en Europe medievale. Paris, 1944.

    Corbin, H. Avicenne et le recit visionnaire. Paris, 1954. English trans., Avicenna and the Visionary Recital, tr. William R. Trask. New York, 1960.

    — — with S. H. Nasr and O. Yahya. Histoire de la philosophie islamique I: Des origines jusqu’a la mort d’Averroes (1198). Paris, 1964.

    — — En Islam iranien: Aspects spirituels et philosophiques. Paris, 1971-1972.

    — — Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi‘iteinfo-icon Iran, tr. N. Pearson. Princeton, NT, 1977.

    — — History of Islamic Philosophy, tr. L. Sherrard. London, 1993.

    Chahine, O. E. Ontologie et theologie chez Avicenne. Paris, 1956.

    Chelkowski, P. J., ed. The Scholar and the Saint. Studies in Commemoration of Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and Jalal al-Din al-Rumi. New York, 1975.

    Cruz Hernandez, M. La metafisica de Avicenna. Granada, 1949.

    — —‘La distincion Avicenniana de la esencia y la existencia y su interpretacion en filosofia occidental’, Homenaje a Millas Vallicrosa. 2 (1956), pp. 351-374.

    — —‘La nocion de “ser” en Avicenne’, Pensamiento, 15 (1959), pp. 83-98.

    — — Historia del pensamiento en el mundo islamico, vol. 1: Desde los origenes hasta el siglo XII. Madrid, 1981.

    Csillik, B ‘‘Umar Khayyam miscellanea’ Acta Orientalia (Acad. ssi. Hungariea), 10 (1960), pp. 59-77.

    Daiber, H. ‘Bahmanyar Kia’, in EIR, vol. 3, pp. 501-503.

    — —Bibliography of Islamic Philosophy. 2 vols. Leiden, 1999.

    D’alverny, M. T. ‘Notes sur les traductions medievales d’Avicenne’, Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Litteraire du Moyen Age, 27 (1952), pp. 337-358.

    Danish-Pazhuh, M. T. Fihrist-i kitabha-yi ihda’i-yi Sayyidinfo-icon Muhammad Mishkat. Tehran, 1354 Sh./1975.

    De Boer, T. J. The History of Philosophy in Islam, tr. E. R. Jones. New York, 1967.

    — — ‘Ethics and Morality (Muslim)’, in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. New York, 1980, vol.5, pp. 507b-508.

    Donaldson, D. M. Studies in Muslim Ethics. London, 1953.

    Druart, Th. A. (al-Farabi and Emanationism’, in John F.Wippel, ed., Studies in Medieval Philosophy. Washington, DC, 1987.

    Duchesne-Guillernin, Jacques. La Religion de l’Iran ancien. Paris, 1962.

    Encyclopaedia Iranica. London-Boston, 1982—.

    Encyclopaedia of Iran and Islam. Tehran, 1976-1982.

    Encyclopaedia of Islam, first edition. Leiden and London, 1913-1938.

    Encyclopaedia of Islam. New ed., Leiden and London, 1960-2006.

    Ergin, O. Ibni sina Bibliografyasi. Istanbul, 1956.

    Fadil, A. ‘The Fame of ‘Umar Khayyam (Between Science and Literature)’, Muslim World, 50 (1960), pp. 269-268.

    Fakhry, M. ‘The Platonism of Miskawayh and its Implication for his Ethics’, Studia Islamica, 42 (1973), pp. 39-57.

    — — ‘al-Biruni and Greek Philosophy— An Essay in Philosophical Erudition’, in Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume. Karachi, 1979, pp. 344-349.

    — — A History of Islamic Philosophy. New York, 1983.

    — — Ethical Theories in Islam. Leiden, 1991.

    Gai, B.M. ‘‘Omar Khayyam- Poet and Philosopher: Indo-Iranica, 8, 3 (1955), pp. 37-48.

    Galindo Aguilar, E. ‘Anthropologie et cosmogonie chez Avicenne’, Institut des Belles-lettres Arabes Revue, 87 (1959), pp. 287-3 23.

    Galston, M. Politics and Excellence: The Political Philosophy of al-Farabi. Princeton, NJ, 1990.

    Gardet, L. La Pensee religieuse d’Avicenne (Ibn Sina). Paris, 1951.

    — — La Connaissance mystique chez Ibn Sina et ses presupposes philosophiques. Paris, 1952.

    — — ‘En honneur du millenaire d’Avicenne’, La Revue Thomiste, 51(1951), pp. 333-345.

    — —‘L’Etude de la philosophie arabe et son role dans l’interpretation de la scholastique’, Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Philosophy. Cambridge, 1926; New York, 1927, pp. 592-596.

    Gardner, Iain, ed. The Kephalaia of the Teacher: The Edited Coptic Manichaean Texts in Translation with Commentary. Leiden, 1995.

    Gilson, E. ‘Les sources greco-arabes de l’augustinisme avicennisant’, Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Litteraire du Moyen Age, 4 (1929), pp. 5-149.

    Goichon, A. M. La Distinction de l’essence et de l’existence d’apres Ibn Sina. Paris, 1937.

    — — Lexique de la langue philosophique d’Ibn Sina. Paris, 1938.

    — — Vocabulaires compares d’Aristote et d’Ibn Sina. Paris, 1939.

    — — La Philosophie d’Avicenne et son includence en Europe medievale. Paris, 1951.

    — — ‘La theorie des formes chez Avicenne’, Congresso Internazionale di Filosofia, 9 (1958), pp. 131-138.

    — — La Philosophie d’Avicenne et son influence en Europe medievale. Paris, 1944.

    Goodman, L. E. ‘Razi’s Myth of the Fall of the Soul: Its Function in his Philosophy: in G. Hourani, ed., Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science. Albany, NY, 1975, pp. 25-40.

    — — ‘The Epicurean Ethic of Muhammad ibn Zakariya’ al-Razi’ Studia Islamica, 34 (1971), pp. 5-26.

    — — ‘Razi’s Psychology’, Philosophical Forum, 4 (1972), pp. 26-48.

    — — Avicenna. London, 1992.

    — — ‘al-Razi, Abu Bakr Muhammad’, EI2, vol. 8, pp. 474-477.

    Gutas, D. Avicenna and the Aristotelian Tradition. Leiden, 1988.

    Halabi, ‘A.A. Tarikh-i falsafah dar Iran wa jahan-i islami. Tehran, 1373 Sh./1994.

    Heinen, A. ‘A1-Biruni and Al-Haytham: A Comparative Study of Scientific Method’, Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume. Karachi, 1979, pp. 501-513.

    Holmyard, E. J. and Mandeville, D. C., tr. Avicennae de congelatione et conlutinatione lapidum, being Sections of the Kitab al-Shifa. The Latin and Arabic Texts edited with an English Translation of the latter with critical notes. Paris, 1927.

    Horton, M. Die spekulative und positive Theologie des Islam. Leipzig, 1912.

    Inati, Shams. A Study of Ibn Sina’s Mysticism. Albany, NY, 1996.

    Iqbal, M. The Development of Metaphysics in Persia. Lahore, 1934.

    Iskandar, A. Z. (The Medical Bibliography of al-Razi’ in G. Hourani, ed., Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science. Albany, NY, 1975, pp. 41-46.

    Izzat, A. A. Trois recherches philosophiques. Cairo, 1947.

    Jackson, A. V. W. From Constantinople to the Home of ‘Omar Khayyam. New York, 1911.

    Janssens, J. An Annotated Bibliography on Ibn Sina (1979-1989). Leuven, 1991.

    Kabir, Ahmad Khan. ‘A Select Bibliography of Writings on al-Farabi in English’, Muslim World Book Review, 13 (1993), pp. 56-61.

    Karam, Y. ‘La vie spirituelle d’apres Avicenne, La Revue du Caire, 27 (1951), pp. 44-55.

    Khan, M. S. Studies in Miskawayh’s Contemporary History. Ann Arbor, MI, 1980.

    Kraemer, J. L. Philosophy in the Renaissance of Islam: Abu Sulayman al-Sijistani and his Circle. Leiden, 1986.

    — — Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age. Leiden, 1993.

    Kraus, P. Abi Mohammadi filii Zachariae Raghensis (Razis) opera philosophica fragmentaque quae supersunt. Cairo, 1939; repr., Beirut, 1973.

    Lacroix, M. C. ‘Education et instruction selon Abu’l-Hasan al-‘Amiri: Presentation et traduction d’un extrait du Kitab al-sa’ada wa’l-is’ad’, Revue Philosophique de Louvain, 87 (1989), pp. 165-214.

    Leaman, O. ‘Ibn Miskawayh, in S. H. Nasr and O. Leaman, ed., History of Islamic Philosophy. London, 1996, pp. 252-257.

    Ley, H. Avicenna. Berlin, 1953.

    Lobato, A. Ysanato Tomas en la teoria del conocimiento. Granada, 1957.

    Madkour, M. L’Organon d’Aristote dans le monde arabe. Paris, 1943.

    — —‘Le traite des categories du Shifa’’, Melanges Institut Dominicain d’Etudes Orientales, 5 (1958), pp. 253-278.

    — —‘Avicenne et l'alchimie’, La Revue du Caire, 27 (1951), pp. 120-129.

    — —‘al-Farabi’, in M. M. Sharif, ed., A History of Muslim Philosophy. Wiesbaden, 1963, vol. 2, pp. 450-468.

    Mahdavi, Y. Bibliographie d’Ibn Sina. Tehran, 1332 Sh./1953.

    Mahdi, M. ‘Alfarabi’, in L. Strauss and J. Cropsey, ed., History of Political Philosophy. Chicago, IL, 1987.

    — —‘al-Farabi’s Imperfect State’, Journal of the American Oriental Society, 110 (1990), pp. 691-726.

    Mahdihassan, S. ‘Interpreting al-Biruni’s Observations on Indian Alchemy’, Al-Biruni Commemoration Volume. Karachi, 1979, pp. 524-529.

    Margoliouth, S. Lectures on Arabic Historians. Calcutta, 1930.

    Massignon, L. ‘La philosophie orientale d’Ibn Sina et son alphabet philosophique’, Memorial Avicenne, 4 (1954), pp. 1-18.

    — —‘Avicenne et les influences orientales’, La Revue du Caire, 27 (1951), pp. 10-12. Meyerhof, M. ‘The Philosophy of the Physician al-Razi’ Islamic Culture, 15 (1941), pp. 45-5 8.

    — —‘Thirty-three Clinical Observations by Rhazes’, Isis, 23 (1935), pp. 321-356.

    Minuvi, M. ‘Azkhaza’in-i Turkiyyah’, Majalla-yi danishkadah-yi adabiyyat-i danishgah-i Tehran, 4 (1954), p. 75.

    Mohaghegh, M. ‘Notes on the “Spiritual Physick” of al-Razi’, Studia Islamica, 26 (1967), pp. 5-22.

    — —Filsuj-i Rayy. Tehran, 1349 Sh./1970.

     — — ed. and tr., Fihrist-i kitabha-yi Razi. Tehran, 1352 Sh./1973.

    Mutahhari, M. Khadamat-i mutaqabil-i Iran wa Islam. Tehran, 1353 Sh./1974.

    Naficy, S. Bibliographie des principaux travaux europeens sur Avicenne. Tehran, 1333 Sh./1954.

    Nallino, A. ‘Filosofia “orientale” od “illuminative’ d’Avicenna”’, Rivista degli Studi Orientali, 10 (1925), pp. 367-433.

    Nasr, S. H. ‘Cosmologies of Aristotle and Ibn Sina’, Pakistan Philosophical Journal, 3 (1960), pp. 13-28.

    — — al-Biruni: An Annotated Bibliography. Tehran, 1973.

    — — Abu Rayhan Biruni, Scientist and Scholar Extraordinary. Tehran, 1973.

    — — Three Muslim Sages. New York, 1976.

    — — ‘From the Alchemy of Jabir to the Chemistry of Razi’, in Nasr, ed., Islamic Life and Thought. Albany, NY, 1981, pp. 120-123.

    — — Science and Civilization in Islam. New York, 1992.

    — — An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrine. Albany, NY, 1993.

    — — The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia, ed. M. Aminrazavi. London, 1996.

    — —‘Why Farabi was called the Second Teacher?’, tr. and ed. M. Aminrazavi in S. H. Netton, I. Allah Transcendent. New York, 1989.

    — — al-Farabi and his School. London, 1992.

    Nyberg, H. S. Hilfsbuch des Pehlevi. Uppsala, 1928-31.

    Partaw, A. Andishaha-yi fa lsafi-yi Irani. Tehran, 1363 Sh./1984.

    Partington, J. R. ‘The Chemistry of Razi’ Ambix, 1 (1938), p. 193.

    Pearson, J. D. Index Islamicus, 1906-1955. Cambridge, 1958; Supplement, 1962, and later volumes.

    Pines, S. Beitriige zur islamischen Atomenlehre. Berlin, 1938.

    — — ‘La “philosophie orientale” d’Avicenne et sa polemique contre les Bagdadiens’, Archives d’Histoire Doctrinale et Litteraire du Moyen Age, 27 (195 2), pp. 5-37.

    — —‘Razi critique de Galien’, Actes du Septieme Congres International d’Histoire des Sciences, 8 (1953), pp. 480-487.

    Pur-Davud, I. Farhang-i Iran-i bastan. Tehran, 1330 Sh./1951.

    Qurbani, A. Biruni-namah. Tehran, 1353 Sh./1974.

    — —‘al-Razi, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York, 1981.

    Rankking, G. S. A. (The Life of Rhazes’, International Congress of Medicine (1914), pp. 237-268.

    Rempis, C. H. Beitrage zur Khayyam-Forschung. Leipzig, 1937.

    Rescher, N. al-Farabi: An Annotated Bibliography. Pittsburg, 1962.

    Ritter, H. ‘Al-Biruni’s Obersetzung des Yoga-Sutra des Patanjali, Oriens, 9 (1956), pp. 165-200.

    Rosenfeld, B. A. ‘O matematicheskikh rabotakh ‘Umara Khaiyama’, Uchenye Zapiski Azerbaidzanskogo Univ., 9 (1957), pp. 3-22.

    — — and A. P. Yushkevich. ‘Umar Khayyam. Moscow, 1965.

    Rosenthal, F. ‘State and Religion According to Abu’l-Hasan al-‘Amiri’ Islamic Quarterly, 3 (1956), pp. 42-42.

    — — A History of Muslim Historiography. Leiden, 1968.

    Ross, E. D. ‘‘Umar Khayyam’, BSOAS, 4 (1926-28), pp. 433-439.

    — — and H. A. R. Gibb. ‘The Earliest Account of ‘Umar Khayyam’, BSOAS, 5 (1928-30), pp. 467-473.

    Rothfeld, O. ‘Umar Khayyam and His Age. Bombay, 1922.

    Saduqi Suha, M. Hukama wa ‘urafa-yi muta’akhkhirin-i Sadr al-muta'allihin. Tehran, 1359 Sh./1980.

    Safa, Dh., ed. Avicenna Commemoration Volume. Tehran, 1334-37 Sh./1954-58.

    — —‘Barkhi az nazarha-yi falsafi-yi Abu Rayhan wa mukhtasari dar munaqishat-i ‘ilmi-yi u wa Ibn-i Sina’, Indo-Iranica, 5 (1952), pp. 5-12.

    — — al-Biruni; ses oeuvres et ses pensees. Tehran, 1973.

    Sa’id, H. M., ed. al-Biruni Commemoration Volume. Karachi, 1979.

    Sa’id, Kh. The Bibliography of al-Biruni, tr. A. Habibi. Tehran, 1973.

    Salet, P. ‘Umar Khayyam, savant et philosophe. Paris, 1927.

    Saliba, Dj. Etude sur la metaphysique d’Avicenne. Paris, 1926.

    Sarton, G. Introduction to the History of Science, vol. 1. Baltimore, MD, 1927.

    Sauvaget, J. Introduction al’histoire de l’orient musulman: Elements de bibliographie. Paris, 1946.

    — — Introduction to the History of the Muslim East: A Bibliographical Guide, ed. and tr. C. Cahen. Berkeley, CA, 1965.

    Schoy, C. ‘Original Studien aus al-Biruni’s al-Qanun al-Mas’udi, Isis, 5 (1923), pp. 51-74.

    Sezgin, F. Geschichte der arabischen Schrifttums. Leiden, 1967—.

    Sharif, M., ed. History of Islamic Philosophy. Wiesbaden, 1963-1966.

    Shayegan, Y. Avicenna on Time. Ph.D. diss., Harvard University, 1986.

    Siassi, A. A. La Psychologie d’Avicenne et ses analogues dans la psychologie moderne. Tehran, 1954.

    — — Le Livre du millenaire d’Avicenne. Tehran, 1956.

    Siddiqi, B. H. ‘Ibn Miskawayh’s Theory of History’, Iqbal, 12 (1963), pp. 71-80.

    Spies, O. ‘Der deutsch Beitrag zur Erforschung Avicennas, in Avicenna Commemoration Volume. Calcutta, 1956.

    Storey, W. E. ‘Umar Khayyam as a Mathematician. Boston, MA, 1918.

    Storey, C. A. Persian Literature: A Bio-bibliographical Survey. London, 1927. Persian tr. Y. Ariyanpur. Tehran, 1362 Sh./1983.

    Strauss, L ‘Farabi’s Plato’, in Louis Ginsberg Jubilee Volume. New York, 1945, pp. 357-393.

    Suter, H. and E. Wiedemann. ‘Uber al-Biruni und seine Schriften’, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften. Sitzungsberichten der physikalisch-medizinischen . Sozietiit in Erlangen. Erlangen, 1902-1929, pp. 1-69.

    Thabit al-Fandi, M. ‘Dieu et le monde: Leurs rapports d’apres Avicenne’, Bulletin of the Faculty of Arts, University of Egypt, 11 (1958),Arabic sect., pp. 159-180.

    Troilo, E. ‘Lineamento e interpretazione del sistema filosofico di Avicenne’, Atti d. Accad. dei Lincei, Memorie, Classe di scienze morali storiche efilologiche. Rome, 1956, pp. 397-446.

    Vadet, J. C. Le souvenir de l’ancienne perse chez le philosophe Abu’l-Hasan al-‘Amiri. Paris, 1983.

    Vajda, G. ‘Les notes d’Avicenne sur la “theologie d’Aristote”, La Revue Thomiste, 51 (1951), pp. 346-406.

    Validi Togan, A. Z. ‘Biruni’s Picture of the World’, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, 53 (1937-1938), pp. 90-104.

    von Horten, M., tr. Die Metaphysik Avicennas. Metaphysik: Enthaltend die Metaphysik, Theologie, Kosmologie und Ethik. New York and Halle, 1907.

    von Mehren, A. F. Traites mystiques d’Abou ‘Ali al-Hosain b. ‘Abdallah b. Sina ou d’Avicenne; texte arabe avec l’explication en francais. Leiden, 1889-189l.

    — —‘Lallegoire mystique Hay ben Yaqzan, Le Museon, 5 (1885), pp. 411-426.

    — —‘La philosophie d’Avicenne, Le Museon, 1 (1883), pp. 89-409, 506-522.

    — —‘Vues theosophiques d’Avicenne’, Le Museon, 4 (1885), pp. 594-599; 5 (1886), pp.

    Walzer, R. ‘al-Farabi’s Theory of Prophecy and Divination: in R. Walzer, ed., Greek into Arabic: Essay on Islamic Philosophy. Oxford, 1962, pp. 206-219.

    — —‘al-Farabi’, EI2, vol. 2, pp. 778-78l.

    West, E. W., tr. Pahlavi Texts. Oxford, 1880-97.

    Widengren, G. Die Religionen Irans. Stuttgart, 1965.

    Wilczynski, J. Z. ‘On the Presumed Darwinism of al-Biruni Eight Hundred Years before Darwin’, Isis, 50 (1959), pp. 459 -466.

    Yushkevich, A. P. ‘‘Umar Khayyam (1040-1123)’, Materiali po istorii progressivnoy obshetvenno filosofskoy misli v Uzbekistane (1957), pp. 199-210.

    Yusuf ‘Ali, A. ‘Al-Biruni’s India’, Islamic Culture, 1 (1927), pp. 31-35, 223-230, 473-487.

    Zaehner, R. C. Zurvan, A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Oxford, 1955.

  • Seyyed Hossein Nasr

    Seyyed Hossein Nasr received his early education in Iran and completed his studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University. Nasr is the author of over three hundred articles and 30 books. He has taught at a number of universities, both in the Middle East, especially Tehran University, and in the United States; and he has lectured widely on Islamic philosophy. Nasr is currently the University Professor of Islamic Studies at The George Washington University.Read more

    Mehdi Aminrazavi

    Mehdi Aminrazavi received his early education in Iran and completed his master’s degree in philosophy at the University of Washington and his doctorate in the philosophy of religion at Temple University. He is the author and editor of numerous articles and books, and is currently Professor of Philosophy and Religion at the University of Mary Washington and Director of the Middle Eastern Studies Program.Read more