• Modernity is commonly cast as a break with tradition – and a marriage with the secular. Rationalism, individual rights, democracy and cosmopolitanism are its favoured offspring, and their story is told as the rise of the modern West. Yet, the essential values at stake – from civic culture to the ethos of science and intellectual life – have roots beyond the West. They extend to civilisations and histories of the Islamic world in all its diversity, giving us journeys into a modernity that is familiar but also different.

    This book is about Muslim encounters with the modern: how Islam and those in its orbit have shaped and been shaped by histories that are overlapping and distinctive. Identity and citizenship, piety and protest, music and modes of dress are explored as expressions that bear on the making and remaking of modern public spheres. Muslim as well as non-Muslim scholars show in these pages that tradition and religiosity alike are active players in the making of the modern.

    A vital theme is the role of the ethical imagination in expressions of the civil, fed by the diversity of religious and cultural narratives as sources of the self. This can be seen in struggles for civil society and democratic citizenship, in the grappling with new technologies, and in the challenges of political violence. Since the events of September 11, 2001, a failure to come to grips with plural modernities has spurred claims about a ‘clash of civilisations’. Fresh perspectives are offered here on what it is to be Muslim and modern, mindful of the rich narratives that inform both identities.

    Contributors: Nilufer Gole, Bruce Lawrence, Hasna Lebbady, Theodore Levin, Kevin McDonald, Fairouz Nishanova, John Renard, Eva Schubert, Bryan Turner and Amyn Sajoo.

  • Acknowledgements ix

    About the Contributors xi

    1. Introduction


    2. Scripture, History and Modernity: Readings of the Qur’aninfo-icon


    3. Heroic Themes: An Invitation to Muslim Worlds


    4. An Andalusian Modernity in Narratives of Women


    5. Civil Sounds: The Aga Khaninfo-icon Music Initiative in Central Asia


    6. Forbidden Modernities: Islam in Public


    7. Revivalism and the Enclave Society


    8. Modern Citizenship, Multiple Identities


    9. Globalization, Civil Imagination and Islamic Movements


    10. Reimagining the Civil: Pluralism and Its Discontents

    AMYN B. SAJOO 207


    Notes 227


    Select Bibliography 259


    Index 271

  • (Select Bibliography)
    Abou El Fadl, Khaled. The Place of Tolerance in Islam. Boston, 2002.

    Abu-Lughod, Janet. ‘The Islamic City – Historical Myth, Islamic Essence, and Contemporary Relevance’, International Journal Middle East Studies, 19 (1987) pp. 155-76.

    Adelkhah, Fariba. Being Modern in Iran. London, 1999.

    Ahmed, Akbar S. Postmodernism and Islam: Predicament and Promise. London, 2004.

    Al-Azmeh, Aziz. Islams and Modernities. London, 1993.

    Albert, Jeff, Magnus Bernhardsson and Roger Kenna, ed., Transformations of Middle Eastern Natural Environments: Legacies and Lessons. New Haven, CT, 1998.

    Almond, G.A., Appleby, R.S., and Siva, E. Strong Religion: The Rise of Fundamentalism Around the World. Chicago, 2003.

    Al-Rasheed, Madawi. Contesting the Saudi State: Islamic Voices from a New Generation. Cambridge, 2007.

    Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. ed., New York, 2006.

    An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed. Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law. Syracuse, NY, 1990.

    Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN, 1996.

    Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a World of Strangers. New York, 2006.

    Arkoun, Mohammed. The Unthought in Contemporary Islamic Thought. London, 2002.

    ____, Rethinking Islam: Common Questions, Uncommon Answers, Boulder, CO, 1994.

    Asad, Talal. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Palo Alto, CA, 2003.

    Azzam, Maha. ‘Islamism Revisited’, International Affairs (London), 82:6 (2006), pp. 1119-1132.

    Baderin, Mashood A. International Human Rights and Islamic Law. Oxford, 2003.

    Bakhtin, Mikhail. Rabelais and His World, tr. H. Iswolsky. Bloomington, IN, 1984.

    Barney, Darin. Prometheus Wired: The Hope for Democracy in the Age of Network Technology. Vancouver, 2000.

    Beck, Ulrich, Anthony Giddens and Scott Lash, ed. Reflexive Modernization: Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order. Cambridge, 1994.

    Beckford, J. Social Theory and Religion. Cambridge, 2003.

    Bellah, Robert. Beyond Belief: Essays on Religion in a Post-Traditional World. New York, 1970.

    Berger, P.L. ed. The Desecularization of the World. Michigan, 1999.

    Berman, Marshall. All That Is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity. New York, 1988.

    Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. New York, 1994.

    Bhargava, Rajeev, ed. Secularism and its Critics. New Delhi, 1998.

    Bianca, Stefano and Jodidio, Philip, ed. Cairo: Revitalising a Historic Metropolis. Turin, 2004.

    Black, Antony. The History of Islamic Political Thought. New York, 2001.

    Bourdieu, Pierre. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge, 1977.

    Boyd, Marion. ‘Dispute Resolution in Family Law: Protecting Choice, Promoting Inclusion.’ Report to the Attorney General and Minister Responsible for Women’s Issues, Ontario (Canada), 20 December 2004:

    Bozdogan, Sibel and Resat Kasaba, ed. Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey. Washington, 1997.

    Brown, Nathan J. and Clark B. Lombardi, ‘The Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt on Islamic Law, Veiling and Civil Rights: An Annotated Translation of Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Case No. 8 of Judicial Year 17 (May 18, 1996)’,

    American University International Law Review, 21 (2006), pp. 437-460.

    Bulliet, Richard. The Case for Islamo-Christian Civilization. New York, 2004.

    Bunt, Gary. Virtually Islamic: Computer-Mediated Communication and Cyber Islamic Environments. Cardiff, 2000.

    Calhoun, Craig. ed. Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge, MA, 1992.

    ____, Paul Price and Ashley Timmer. ed. Understanding September 11. New York, 2002.

    Cantacuzino, Sherban, ed., Architecture in Continuity: Building in the Islamic World Today. New York, 1985.

    Carter, Ian, Matthew H. Kramer and Hillel Steiner, ed. Freedom: A Philosophical Anthology. Oxford, 2007.

    Casanova, Jose. Public Religions in the Modern World. Chicago, 1994.

    Castoriadis, Cornelius. L’institution imaginaire de la société. Paris, 1975; English trans., The Imaginary Institution of Society, tr. Kathleen Blamey. Cambridge, MA, 1987.

    Chadwick, Owen. The Secularisation of the European Mind in the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, 1990.

    Chakrabarty, Dipesh. Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton, 2000.

    Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, 1993.

    Chittick, William C. Imaginal Worlds: Ibn al-Arabi and the Problem of Religious Diversity. Albany, NY, 1994.

    Clark, Emma. The Art of the Islamic Garden. Ramsbury, UK, 2004.

    Connelly, Bridget. Arab Folk Epic and Identity. Berkeley, CA, 1986.

    Connolly, William E. Pluralism. Durham, NC, 2005.

    Cooke, Miriam and Bruce Lawrence, ed. Muslim Networks: From Hajjinfo-icon to Hip Hop. Chapel Hill, NC, 2005.

    Cooper, Frederick. Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History. Berkeley, CA, 2005.

    Dabashi, Hamid. Close-Up: Iranian Cinema, Past, Present, Future. London, 2002.

    ____, ed. Dreams of Nation: On Palestinian Cinema. London, 2006.

    ____, Iran: A People Interrupted. New York, 2007.

    Davison, Andrew. Secularism and Revivalism in Turkey: A Hermeneutic Reconsideration. New Haven, CT, 1998.

    D’Entreves, Maurizio Passerin and Seyla Benhabib, ed. Habermas and the Unfinished Project of Modernity: Critical Essays on the Philosophical Discourse of Modernity. Cambridge, MA, 1997.

    Dirlik, Arifinfo-icon. ‘Is There History after Eurocentrism? Globalism, Postcolonialism, and the Disavowal of History’, Cultural Critique, 42 (1999), pp. 1-34

    Doubleday, Veronica. Three Women of Herat. London, 2006.

    Edwards, David B. Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier. Berkeley, CA, 1996.

    Edwards, Michael. Civil Society. Oxford, 2004.

    Eickelman, Dale F. ‘Islam and Modernity’, in Eliezer Ben-Rafael and Yitzhak Sternberg, ed., Identity, Culture and Globalization. Leiden, 2002, pp. 93-104.

    ____ and Jon Anderson. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere. 2nd ed., Bloomington, IN, 2003.

    Eisenstadt, S. N. Fundamentalism, Sectarianism and Revolution: The Jacobin Dimension of Modernity. Cambridge, 1999.

    Eliade, Mircea. Images and Symbols: Studies in Religious Symbolism, Princeton, NJ, 1991.

    Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton, 1995.

    Esposito, John L., ed. The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford, 1999.

    Falk, Richard. Religion and Humane Global Governance. New York, 2001.

    Fathy, Hassan. Architecture for the Poor: An Experiment in Rural Egypt. Chicago, 1976.

    Federspiel, Howard. Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals of the 20th Century. Singapore, 2006.

    Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Civilizations: Culture, Ambition and the Transformation of Nature. London, 2000.

    Frampton, Kenneth, ed., Modernity and Community: Architecture in the Islamic World. London, 2001.

    Gaonkar, Dilip P. ‘Toward New Imaginaries: An Introduction,’ Public Culture, 14:1 (2002), pp.1-19.

    ____, ed. Alternative Modernities. Durham, NC, 2001.

    Gavin, Harry R., ed. Romanticism, Modernism, Postmodernism. London, 1980.

    Gellner, Ernest. Conditions of Liberty: Civil Society and its Rivals. London, 1994.

    Gibney, Matthew J., ed. Globalizing Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures, 1999. Oxford, 2003.

    Giddens, Anthony. The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford, CA, 1990.

    Gleason, Philip. ‘Identifying Identity: a Semantic History’, Journal of American History, 69:4 (1983), pp. 910-931.

    Goffman, Daniel. The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge, 2002.

    Goldberg, Ellis et al, ed. Rules and Rights in the Middle East: Democracy, Law, and Society. Seattle, WA, 2003.

    Gole, Nilufer. The Forbidden Modern: Civilization and Veiling. Ann Arbor, MI, 1996.

    ____ ‘Islam in Public: New Visibilities and New Imaginaries’, Public Culture, 14:1 (2002), pp. 173-190.

    Gonzalez, Valerie. Beauty and Islam: Aesthetics in Islamic Art and Architecture. London & New York, 2001.

    Graham, Mark. How Islam Created the Modern World. Beltsville, MD, 2006.

    Habermas, Jurgen. The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society, tr. T. Burger and F. Lawrence. Cambridge, MA, 1989.

    Habermas, Jurgen. The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, tr. F. Lawrence. Cambridge, MA, 1990.

    Hall, Stuart, et al. Modernity: An Introduction to Modern Societies. Oxford, 1996.

    Hamid, Ismail. Arabic and Islamic Literary Tradition. Kuala Lumpur, 1982.

    Hasan, N. Laskar Jihadinfo-icon: Islam, Militancy And the Quest for Identity in Post-New Order Indonesia. Ithaca, NY, 2006.

    Hashmi, Sohail, ed. Islamic Political Ethics. Princeton, NJ, 2002.

    Hawley, John, ed., The Postcolonial Crescent: Islam’s Impact on Contemporary Literature. New York, 1998.

    Heater, Derek. Citizenship: The Civic Ideal in World History, Politics and Education. Manchester, 2004.

    Hefner, Robert. ‘Multiple Modernities: Christianity, Islam and Hinduism in a Globalizing Age’, Annual Review of Anthropology, 27 (1998) pp. 83-104.

    ____, ed. The Politics of Multiculturalism: Pluralism and Citizenship in Malaysia,Singapore and Indonesia. Honolulu, 2001.

    Hirschkind, Charles. ‘Civic Virtue and Religious Reason: An Islamic Counter Public’, Cultural Anthropology, 16, (2001), pp. 3-34.

    Hobsbawm, Eric and Terence Ranger, ed.The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge, 1983.

    Hourani, Albert and S.M. Stern, ed. The Islamic City: A Colloquium. Oxford, 1970.

    Hourani, Albert. Arabic Thought in the Liberal Age, 1798-1939. Cambridge, 1983.

    Huntington, Samuel P. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York, 1996.

    Hutcheon, Linda. The Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction. New York & London, 1988.

    Inayatullah, Sohail and Gail Boxwell, ed. Islam, Postmodernism, and other Futures: A Ziauddin Sardar Reader. Sterling, VA, 2003.

    Jahanbegloo, Ramin, ed. Iran: Between Tradition and Modernity. Lanham, MD & Oxford, 2004.

    Johansen, Baber. Contingency in a Sacred Law: Legal and Ethical Norms in the Muslim Fiqhinfo-icon. Leiden, 1999.

    Kamali, Masoud. Multiple Modernities, Civil Society and Islam: The Case of Iran and Turkey. Liverpool, 2006.

    Karim, K. H., ed. The Media of Diaspora. New York, 2002.

    Karpat, Kemal H., ed. Ottoman Past and Today’s Turkey. Boston, MA, 2000.

    Keddie, Nikki. Women in the Middle East: Past and Present. Princeton, NJ, 2007.

    Khalid, Adeeb. Islam after Communism: Religion and Politics in Central Asia. Berkeley, CA, 2007.

    Knauft, Bruce M., ed. Critically Modern: Alternatives, Alterities, Anthropologies. Bloomington & Indianapolis, IN, 2002.

    Kristeva, Julia. ‘Women’s Time’, Signs, 1 (1981), pp. 13-35.

    Kymlicka, Will. Multicultural Citizenship: A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights. Oxford,1995.

    ____ Politics in the Vernacular: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Citizenship. Oxford, 2001.

    Laborde, Cecile. ‘The Culture(s) of the Republic: Nationalism and Multiculturalism in French Republican Thought’, Political Theory, 29 (2001), pp. 716-735.

    Laroui, Abdellah. The History of the Maghribinfo-icon: An Interpretive Essay, tr. Ralph Manheim. Princeton, NJ, 1977.

    Latham, Michael E., Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and ‘Nation Building’ in the Kennedy Era. Chapel Hill, NC, 2000.

    Lawrence, Bruce, The Qur’aninfo-icon: A Biography. London, 2006.

    Lebbady, Hasna. ‘Of Women-Centered Moroccan Tales and their Imagined Communities’, The Muslim World, 95 (2005), pp. 217-230.

    Lerner, Daniel. The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East. Glencoe, ILL, 1958.

    Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. Oxford, 1968.

    Lewontin, R.C. Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA. Toronto, 1991.

    Luong, Pauline Jones, ed. The Transformation of Central Asia: States and Societies from Soviet Rule to Independence. Ithaca, NY, 2004.

    Maaloud, Amin. In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong, New York, 2000.

    Macleod, Arlene. Accommodating Protest: Working Women, the New Veiling, and Change in Cairo. New York, 1991.

    Mahmood, Saba. ‘Ethical Formation and Politics of Individual Autonomy in Contemporary Egypt’, Social Research, 70:3 (2003), pp. 1501-1530.

    ____ Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject.

    Princeton, NJ, 2004.

    Maaruf, Shaharuddin B. Concept of a Hero in Malay Society. Singapore, 1984.

    Mayeur-Jaouen, Catherine. Saints et heros du moyen-orient contemporain. Paris, 2002.

    McDonald, Kevin. Global Movements: Action and Culture. Oxford, 2006.

    MacDougall, Elisabeth B. and Richard Ettinghausen, ed. The Islamic Garden. Washington, DC, 1976.

    Menocal, Maria Rosa. Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Boston & London, 2002.

    ____ The Arabic Role in Medieval Literary History: A Forgotten Heritage. Philadelphia, PA, 1987.

    Mernissi, Fatimainfo-icon. The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam, tr. M.J. Lakeland. Cambridge, MA, 1991.

    Miege, Jean-Louis. Tetouan a travers les siecles. Tetouan, Morocco, 1995.

    Migdal, J. State in Society: Studying How States and Societies Transform and Constitute One Another. New York, 2001.

    Miles, Malcolm, ‘Utopias of Mud? Hassan Fathy and Alternative Modernisms’, Space and Culture, 9 (2006), pp. 115-139.

    Mir-Hosseini, Ziba and Richard Tapper. Islam and Democracy in Iran: Eshkevari and the Quest for Reform. London, 2006.

    Mir, Mustansir. Tulip in the Desert: A Selection of the Poetry of Muhammad Iqbal. Montreal, 2000.

    Mitchell, Timothy. Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-politics, Modernity. Berkeley, CA, 2003.

    Moosa, Ebrahim. Ghazali and the Poetics of Imagination. Chapel Hill, NC, 2005.

    Nasser, Mervat. ‘The New Veiling Phenomenon’, Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 9:6 (1999) pp. 407-412.

    Nasr, Seyyid Hossein. Islam and the Plight of Modern Man. London, 1975.

    Navaro-Yasin, Yael. ‘The Historical Construction of Local Culture: Gender and Identity in the Politics of Secularism versus Islam’ in Keyder and Caglar, ed., Istanbul Between The Local and The Global. Lanham, MD, 1999, pp. 60-74.

    Norris, Pippa and Ronald Inglehart, ed., Sacred and Secular: Religion and Politics Worldwide. New York, 2004.

    Outhwaite, William, ed. The Habermas Reader. Cambridge, 1996.

    Pamuk, Orhan. Snow: A Novel, tr. Maureen Freely. New York, 2004.

    Putnam, Robert D. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York, 2000.

    Qutbinfo-icon, Sayyidinfo-icon. Social Justice in Islam. New York, 1953.

    Rahman, Fazlur. Islam and Modernity: Transformation of an Intellectual Tradition. Chicago, 1982.

    Ramadan, Tariq. Western Muslims and the Future of Islam. Oxford, 2004.

    Rawls, John. A Theory of Justice. Rev. ed., Oxford, 1999.

    Renard, John. Islam and the Heroic Image: Themes in Literature and the Visual Arts. Columbia, SC, 1993.

    Roy, Olivier. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummahinfo-icon. London, 2004.

    Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism: The Search for Meaning. Oxford, 2004.

    Sachedina, Abdulaziz. The Islamic Roots of Democratic Pluralism. New York, 2001.

    Sadr, Hamid Reza. Iranian Cinema: A Political History. London, 2006.

    Sadri, M. and A. Sadri, ed. and tr. Reason, Freedom and Democracy in Islam: Essential Writings of Abdolkarim Soroush. Oxford, 2004.

    Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York, 1978.

    ____ Covering Islam: How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. Rev. ed., New York, 1997.

    ____ ‘The Clash of Ignorance’, The Nation, 22 October 2001 (

    Sajoo, Amyn B. Pluralism in Old Societies and New States. Singapore, 1994.

    ____, ed. Civil Society in the Muslim World: Contemporary Perspectives. London & New York, 2002.

    ____ Muslim Ethics: Emerging Vistas. London, 2004.

    Salvatore, Armando and Dale Eickleman, ed. Public Islam and the Common Good. Leiden, 2004.

    Schaebler, Birgit and Leif Stenberg, ed., Globalization and the Muslim World: Culture, Religion, and Modernity. Syracuse, NY, 2004.

    Santoso, Soewito. ‘The Islamization of Indonesian/Malay Literature in its Earlier Period’, Journal of the Oriental Society of Australia, 8 [1971], pp. 9-27.

    Sen, Amartya. Identity and Violence: The Illusion of Destiny. New York, 2006.

    Silverstein, Ken. ‘Parties of God,’ Harper’s, 314:1882 (March 2007), pp. 33-44.

    Smith, Thomas W. ‘Between Allah and Ataturk: Liberal Islam in Turkey’, The International Journal of Human Rights, 9 (2005), pp. 307-325.

    Somerville, Margaret. The Ethical Imagination: Journeys of the Human Spirit. Toronto, 2006.

    Soroudi, Sorush. ‘Islamization of the Iranian National Hero Rustam as Reflected in Persian Folktales’, Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 2 (1980), pp. 365-383.

    Taji-Faruki, Suha. ed. Modern Muslim Intellectuals and the Qur’an. Oxford, 2004.

    Tapper, Richard, ed. The New Iranian Cinema: Politics, Representation and Identity. London, 2002.

    Taylor, Charles. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge, MA, 1989.

    ____, The Ethics of Authenticity. Cambridge, MA, 1991.

    ____, Varieties of Religion Today: William James Revisited. Cambridge, MA, 2002.

    ____, Modern Social Imaginaries. Durham, NC, 2004.

    ____, A Secular Age. Cambridge, MA, 2007.

    Thomas, Elaine R. ‘Keeping Identity at a distance: Explaining France’s New Legal Restrictions on the Islamic Headscarf’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, 29 (2006), pp. 237-259

    Troll, Christian. Sayyid Ahmad Khan: A Reinterpretation of Muslim Theology. New Delhi, 1978.

    Turner, Bryan S. Weber and Islam. London, 1998.

    ____ ‘Cosmopolitan Virtue: Religion in a Global Age’, European Journal of Social Theory, 4:2 (2001), pp. 131-152.

    Urry, J. Sociology Beyond Societies: Mobilities for the Twenty First Century. New York, 2000.

    Vahdat, Farzin. ‘Post-Revolutionary Islamic Discourses on Modernity in Iran: Expansion and Contraction of Human Subjectivity’, International Journal of Middle East Studies, 35 (2003), pp. 599-631.

    Warde, G. ‘The Future of Religion’, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 74:1 (2006), pp. 179-186.

    Watenpaugh, Keith. Being Modern in the Middle East: Revolution, Nationalism, Colonialism, and the Arab Middle Class. Princeton, NJ, 2006.

    Werbner, Pnina. ‘Global Pathways: Working Class Cosmopolitans and their Creation of Transnational Ethnic Worlds’, Social Anthropology, 17:1 (1999), pp. 17-35

    ____ ‘The Place which is Diaspora’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28:1 (2002), pp. 119-133.

    White, Jenny. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle, WA, 2002.

    Winner, Thomas. The Oral Art and Literature of the Kazakhs of Russian Central Asia. Durham, NC, 1958.

    Yack, Bernard. The Fetishism of Modernities: Epochal Self-Consciousness in Contemporary Social and Political Thought. Notre Dame, IN, 1997.

    Zarcone, Thierry. ‘View from Islam, view from the West’, Diogenes, 50 (2003), pp. 49 - 59.

    Zubaida, Sami, ‘Max Weber’s The City and the Islamic City’, Max Weber Studies, 6:1 (2006), pp. 111-118.

  • Dr Amyn Sajoo

    Amyn B. Sajoo is a Scholar-in-Residence at Simon Fraser University’s Centre for Comparative Muslim Studies in Vancouver, Canada. A specialist in international human rights, civil society and public ethics, Dr Sajoo was educated at King's College London and McGill University, Montreal. He has taught at the University of British Columbia, McGill, Simon Fraser University and The Institute of Ismaili Studies, and was a 2005 Visiting Fellow at Cambridge University. Dr Sajoo earlier served as a human rights advisor with the Canadian department of Justice in Ottawa. He also served as a Canada-ASEAN...Read more