Reading Lists

Shi‘i Islam

1. General Works

Amirinfo-icon-Moezzi, Mohammad. The Divine Guide in Early Shi‘isminfo-icon, tr. D. Streight. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1994; originally published as Le guide divin dans le Shi‘isme original. Aux sources de l’ésotérisme en Islam. Paris, 1992.

Arjomand, Said Amir. The Shadow of God and the Hidden Imaminfo-icon: Religion, Political Order and Societal Change in Shi‘iteinfo-icon Iran from the Beginning to 1890. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 1984.

____, ed. Authority and Political Culture in Shi‘ism. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1988.

Brunner, Rainer and Werner Ende, eds. The Twelver Shi‘ainfo-icon in Modern Times. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Clarke, L., ed. Shi‘ite Heritage Essays on Classical and Modern Traditionalism. New York: Binghamton University Press, 2001.

Cole, Juan. Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi‘ite Islam. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

____ and Nikki Keddie, ed. Shi‘ism and Social Protest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1986.

Enayat, Hamid. Modern Islamic Political Thought: The Response of the Shi‘i and Sunni Muslims to the Twentieth Century. London: I. B. Tauris, 1982.

Fahd, Toufic, ed. Le Shi‘isme imamite, Colloque de Strasbourg 6-9 May 1968. Paris, 1970.

Gleave, Robert. ‘Shi‘i’, in Y. Choueiri, ed., A Companion to the History of the Middle East. Oxford, 2005, pp. 87-105.

Halm, Heinz. Shi‘ism, tr. J. Watson and M. Hill. 2nd ed., Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2004; originally published as Die Schia, Darmstadt, 1988.

____. Shi‘a Islam: From Religion to Revolution. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997.

Jafri, S. Hussain M. Origins and Early Developments of Shi‘a Islam. Beirut: Longman and Librairie Liban, 1979; 2nd ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Kasravi, Ahmad. On Islam and Shi‘ism. Costa Mesta, CA: Mazda, 1990.

Keddie, Nikki, ed. Iran: Religion, Politics and Society: Collected Essays. London: Frank Cass, 1980.

____. Religion and Politics in Iran: Shi‘ism from Quietism to Revolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1983.

Kramer, Martin, ed. Shi‘ism, Resistance and Revolution. London: Continuum, 1987.

Lalani, Arzina. Early Shi‘i Thought: The Teachings of Muhammad al-Baqir. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.

Lambton, Ann K. State and Government in Medieval Islam: An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Political Theory: The Jurists. Oxford: Curzon Press, 1981.

Lawson, Todd, ed. Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism in Muslim Thought. Essays in Honour of Hermann Landolt. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

Luft, Paul and Colin Turner, ed. Shi‘ism: Critical Concepts in Islamic Studies. London: Routledge, 2008.

____. Religious and Ethnic Movements in Islam. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, 1992.

____. ‘Shi‘a’, EI2, vol. 9, pp. 420-424.

Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi‘i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi‘ism. New Haven, CT and London: Yale University Press, 1985.

Mottahedeh, Roy. Loyalty and Leadership in an Early Islamic Society. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980.

____. The Mantle of the Prophet: Religion and Politics in Iran. Oxford: Oneworld, 2000.

Moussavi, Ahmad Kazemi. Religious Authority in Shi‘ite Islam: From the Office of Muftiinfo-icon to the Institution of Marja’. Kuala Lumpur: IIITCS, 1996.

Al-Muzaffar, Muhammad Rida. The Faith of Shi‘a Islam. Qumm, 1982.

Nasr, S. Hossein et al., ed. Shi‘ism: Doctrines, Thought and Spirituality. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1988.

____. Expectation of the Millennium: Shi‘ism in History. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1989.

Shomali, Mohammad. A. Shi‘i Islam: Origins, Faith and Practices. London: Islamic College for Advanced Studies Publications, 2003.

____. Discovering Shi‘i Islam. 4th ed., Qumm, 1384/2006. Stern, Samuel M. History and Culture in the Medieval Muslim World. London: Variorum, 1984.

Walbridge, Linda, ed. The Most Learned of the Shi‘a: The Institution of the Marja’ Taqlid. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Yann, Richard. Shi‘ite Islam: Polity, Ideology, and Creed, tr. Antonia Nevill. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

2. The Zaydisinfo-icon

Note: There are very few accessible works on the Zaydis. Much of the scholarship on the Zaydis is in German. Please refer to sections on Zaydiyyainfo-icon in the General Works on Shi‘i Islam.
van Arendonk, Cornelis. ‘Yahya’ b. Zayd’, EI2, vol. 4, pp. 1214-1215.

van Ess, Josef. ‘The Kamiliya: On the Genesis of a Heresiographical Tradition’, in E. Kohlberg, ed., Shi‘ism. Aldershot: Variorum, 2003, pp. 209-219.

Jarrar, Maher. ‘Some Aspects of Imami Influence on Early Zaydite Theology,’ in Brunner, R., et al, ed. Islamstudien ohne Ende. Festschrift W. Ende. Würzburg: Ergon, 2002, pp. 201-223.

Khan, M.S. ‘The Early History of Zaydi Shi‘ism in Daylaman and Gilan’, in E. Kohlberg,ed., Shi‘ism. Aldershot: Variorum, 2003, pp. 221-234.

Madelung, Wilferd. Der Imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1965.

____. ‘Imamainfo-icon’, EI2, vol. 3, pp. 1163-1169.

____. ‘Zaydiyya’, EI2, vol. 11, pp. 477-481.

____. ‘Zayd b. ‘Ali’, EI2, vol. 11, pp. 473-474.

Mortel, Richard. ‘Zaydi Shi‘ism and the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca’, IJMES, 19 (1987), pp. 455-472.

3. The Ismailis

Aga Khaninfo-icon III, Sultan Muhammad Shahinfo-icon. The Memoirs of Aga Khan: World Enough and Time. London: Cassel, 1954.

____. Aga Khan III: Selected Speeches and Writings of Sir Sultan Muhammad Shah, ed. K. K. Aziz. London: Kegan Paul, 1997-1998.

Aga Khan IV, Karim. Speeches. Mombasa, 1963-1964. 2 vols.

Ali, S. Mujtaba. The Origin of the Khojahs and their Religious Life Today. Würzburg: Ergon, 1936.

Amiji, Hatim M. ‘The Asian Communities’, in J. Kritzeck and W.H. Lewis, ed., Islam in Africa. New York: Van Nostrand-Rheinhold, 1969, pp. 141-181.

____. ‘The Bohras of East Africa’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 7 (1975), pp. 27-61.

Anderson, J. N. D. ‘The Isma‘ili Khojasinfo-icon of East Africa: A New Constitution and Personal Law for the Community’, Middle Eastern Studies, 1 (1964), pp. 21-39.

Asani, Ali. ‘The Ginaninfo-icon Literature of the Ismailis of Indo-Pakistan: Its Origins, Characteristics, and Themes’, in D.L. Eck and F. Mallison, ed., Devotion Divine: Bhakti Traditions from the Regions of India. Groningen: Egbert Forsten, 1991, pp. 1-18.

____. ‘The Ismaili ginans as Devotional Literature’, in R.S. McGregor, ed., Devotional Literature in South Asia: Current Research, 1985-1988. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992, pp. 101-112.

____. ‘The Ismaili ginans. Reflections on Authority and Authorship’, in F. Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, pp. 265-280.

____. ‘The Khojahs of South Asia: Defining a Space of their Own’, Cultural Dynamics, 13 (2001), pp. 155-168.

____. Ecstasy and Enlightenment: The Ismaili Devotional Literature of South Asia. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

Blank, Jonah. Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity among the Daudi Bohras. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press, 2001.

Boivin, Michael. ‘The Reform of Islam in Ismaili Shi‘ism from 1885 to 1957’, in F. ‘Nalini’ Delvoye, ed., Confluences of Cultures: French Contributions to Indo-Persian Studies. New Delhi: Manohar, 1994, pp. 197-216.

Brett, Michael. The Rise of the Fatimidsinfo-icon: The World of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in the Tenth Century. Leiden: Brill, 2001.

Canard, Marius. ‘Fatimids’, EI2, vol. 2, pp. 850-862.

Clarke, P. B. ‘The Ismailis: A Study of Community’, The British Journal of Sociology, 27 (1976), pp. 484-494.

____. ‘The Ismaili Sect in London: Religious Institutions and Social Change’, Religion, 8 (1978), pp. 68-84.

Cortese, Delia and Simonetta Calderini. Women and the Fatimids in the World of Islam. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2006.

Dabashi, Hamid. ‘The Philosopher/Vizierinfo-icon: Khwaja Nasir al-Dininfo-icon al-Tusi and the Isma‘ilisinfo-icon’, in Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought, pp. 231-245.

Daftary, Farhad. The Assassin Legends: Myths of the Isma‘ilis. London: I. B. Tauris, 1994.

____. ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

____. A Short History of the Ismailis: Traditions of a Muslim Community. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998; Arabic tr., S. Kassir. Damascus: Al-Mada, 2001; French tr., Les Ismaéliens, tr. Z. Rajan-Badouraly. Paris, 2003; German tr., Kurt Maier. Würzburg: Ergon, 2003; Gujarati tr., J. Merchant and S. Muhammad. Mumbai: A. N. Thakkar, 2007; Persian tr., Mukhtasari dar ta’rikh-i Isma‘iliyya, tr. F. Badra’i. Tehran, 1378 Sh./1999; Portuguese tr., Paulo Jorge de Sousa Pinto. Lisbon: Universidade Católica Portuguesa, 2003; Russian tr., Kratkaia istoriia Isma‘ilizma, tr. L. R. Dodikhudoeva and L. N. Dodkhudoeva. Moscow, 2003.

____. Ismaili Literature: A Bibliography of Sources and Studies. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.

____. Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

____. The Isma‘ilis: Their History and Doctrines. 2nd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Dumasia, Naoroji M. A Brief History of the Aga Khan. Bombay: Times of India Press, 1903.

____. The Aga Khan and His Ancestors: A Biographical and Historical Sketch. Bombay: Times of India Press, 1939; repr., New Delhi: Readworthy, 2008.

Eboo Jamal, Nadia. Surviving the Mongols: Nizari Quhistani and the Continuity of Ismaili Tradition in Persia. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

Engineer, Asghar Ali. The Bohras. New Delhi: Vikas, 1980.

Esmail, Aziz. A Scent of Sandalwood: Indo-Ismaili Religious Lyrics. Ginans. Volume 1. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 2002.

Frischauer, Willi. The Aga Khans. London: Bodley Head, 1970.

Fyzee, Asaf A. A. ‘Bohoras’, EI2, vol. 1, pp. 1254-1255.

Halm, Heinz. The Empire of the Mahdiinfo-icon: The Rise of the Fatimids, tr. M. Bonner. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

____. The Fatimids and Their Traditions of Learning. London: I. B. Tauris, 1997.

Hamdani, Abbas H. The Beginnings of the Isma‘ili Da‘wainfo-icon in Northern India. Cairo: Sirovic, 1956.

Hamdani, Sumaiya A. Between Revolution and State: The Path to Fatimid Statehood. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.

Hillenbrand, Carole. ‘The Power Struggle between the Saljuqs and the Isma‘ilis of Alamutinfo-icon, 487-518/1094-1124: The Saljuqinfo-icon Perspective’, in Daftary, ed., Mediaeval Isma‘ili History and Thought, pp. 205-220.

Hodgson, Marshall G. S. The Order of the Assassins: The Struggle of the Early Nizari Isma‘ilis Against the Islamic World. The Hague: Mouton, 1955; repr., New York, 1980.

Hunsberger, Alice C. Nasir Khusraw, The Ruby of Badakhshan: A Portrait of the Persian Poet, Traveller and Philosopher. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.

Ivanow, Wladimir. ‘The Sect of Imam Shah in Gujarat’, JBBRAS, NS, 12 (1936), pp. 19-70.

____. Studies in Early Persian Ismailism. 2nd ed., Bombay: Ismaili Society, 1955.

____. Alamut and Lamasar: Two Mediaeval Ismaili Strongholds in Iran. Tehran: Ismaili Society, 1960.

Kassam, Tazim R. Songs of Wisdom and Circles of Dance: Hymns of the Satpanth Isma‘ili Muslim Saint, Pirinfo-icon Shams. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1995.

Keshavjee, Rafique H. Mysticism and the Plurality of Meaning: The Case of the Ismailis of Rural Iran. London: I. B. Tauris, 1998.

Khan, A. Z. ‘Ismailism in Multaninfo-icon and Sindinfo-icon’, Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 23 (1975), pp. 36-57.

Khan, Dominique-Sila. Conversions and Shifting Identities: Ramdev Pir and the Ismailis in Rajasthan. New Delhi: Manohar, 1997.

____. Crossing the Threshold: Understanding Religious Identities in South Asia. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.

Kjellberg, E. The Ismailis in Tanzania (M. A. thesis). Dar es-Salaam: University College, 1967.

Klemm, Verena. Memoirs of a Mission: The Ismaili Scholar, Statesman and Poet al-Mu’ayyad fi’l-Dininfo-icon al-Shirazi. London: I. B. Tauris, 2003.

Lev, Yaacov. State and Society in Fatimid Egypt. Leiden: Brill, 1991.

Lewis, Bernard. The Origins of Isma‘ilism: A Study of the Historical Background of the Fatimid Caliphateinfo-icon. Cambridge: W. Heffer, 1940; repr., New York: AMS, 1975.

____ . The Assassins: A Radical Sect in Islam. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1967; French tr., Les Assassins, tr. A. Pélissier. Paris: Berger-Levrault, 1982.

Lokhandwalla, Sh. T. ‘The Bohras, a Muslim Community of Gujarat’, Studia Islamica, 3 (1955), pp. 117-135.

Madelung, Wilferd. ‘Isma‘iliyya’, EI2, vol. 4, pp. 198-206.

____ and Paul Walker, ed. and tr. The Advent of the Fatimids: A Contemporary Shi‘i Witness. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.

Mirza, Nasseh Ahmad. Syrian Ismailism: The Ever Living Line of the Imamateinfo-icon, AD 1100-1260. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon, 1997.

Mitha, Farouk. Al-Ghazali and the Ismailis: A Debate on Reason and Authority in Medieval Islam. London: I. B. Tauris, 2001.

Nanji, Azim. ‘Modernization and Change in the Nizari Ismaili Community in East Africa – A Perspective’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 6 (1974), pp. 123-139.

____. The Nizari Isma‘ili Tradition in the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. Delmar, NY: Caravan Books, 1978.

Poonawala, Ismail K. Biobibliography of Isma‘ili Literature. Malibu, CA: Undena, 1977.

Ruthven, Malise. ‘Aga Khan III and the Ismai‘ili Renaissance’, in Peter B. Clarke, ed., New Trends and Developments in the World of Islam. London: Luzac Oriental, 1998, pp. 371-395.

Shackle, Christopher and Zawahir Moir. Ismaili Hymns from South Asia: An Introduction to the Ginans. Rev. ed. Richmond: Curzon, 2000.

Sanders, Paula. Ritual, Politics and the City in Fatimid Cairo. Albany, NY: SUNY Press,1994.

Virani, Shafique. ‘The Eagle Returns: Evidence of Continued Isma‘ili Activity at Alamut and in the South Caspian Region Following the Mongol Conquest’, JAOS, 123 (2003), pp. 351-370.

Walker, Paul E. Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History and Its Sources. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

____. Abu Ya‘qub al-Sijistani: Intellectual Missionary. London: I. B. Tauris, 1996.

____. Hamid al-Din al-Kirmani: Ismaili Thought in the Age of al-Hakim. London: I. B. Tauris, 1999.

____. Exploring an Islamic Empire: Fatimid History and its Sources. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

____ and Wilferd Madelung, ed. and tr. The Advent of the Fatimids: A Contemporary Shi‘i Witness, Ibn al-Haytham’s Kitab al-Munazarat. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.

____ with Ayman Fu’ad Sayyidinfo-icon and Maurice A. Pomerantz. The Fatimids and their Successors in Yaman: The History of an Islamic Community. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.

Willey, Peter. Eagle’s Nest: Ismaili Castles in Iran and Syria. London: I. B. Tauris, 2005.

4.The Ithna‘ashariyya

Note: Most of the works listed in the Shi‘i Islam: General Works section are also relevant to this topic

Abissab, Rula Jurdi. Converting Persia: Religion and Power in the Safavid Empire. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.

Algar, Hamid. Religion and State in Iran 1758-1906: The Role of the Ulamainfo-icon in the Qajar Period. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1969.

Ayoub, Mahmoud. The Crisis of Muslim History: Religion and Politics in Early Islam. Oxford: Oneworld, 2003.

Bayat, Mangol. Iran’s First Revolution: Shi‘ism and the Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Bayhom-Daou, Tamima. Shaykhinfo-icon Mufid. Oxford: Oneworld, 2005.

Ghaffari, Salman. Shi‘ism or Original Islam. 2nd ed., Tehran, 1971.

Hussain, Jassim. The Occultation of the Twelfth Imam: A Historical Background. London: Muhammadi Trust, 1982.

Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates: The Islamic Near East from the Sixth to the Eleventh Century. London: Longman, 1986.

____. The Early Abbasid Caliphate: A Political History. London: Croom Helm, 1981.

Kohlberg, Etan. ‘From Imamiyyainfo-icon to Ithna-‘Ashariyya,’ BSOAS, 39 (1976), pp. 521-534.

Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Mazzaoui, Michel M. The Origins of the Safawidsinfo-icon: Shi‘ism, Sufisminfo-icon and the Gulat. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1972.

Shaban, Muhammad A. The Abbasid Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.

Sharon, Moshe. Black Banners from the East: The Establishment of the ‘Abbasid State – Incubation of a Revolt. Jerusalem and Leiden: Magnes Press, 1983.

Sobhani, Ayatolloh Jaffer. Doctrines of Shi‘i Islam: A Compendium of Imami Beliefs Practices, tr. and ed. Reza Shah-Kazemi. London: I. B. Tauris, 2001.

Zaman, Muhammad Q. Religion and Politics under the Early ‘Abbasidsinfo-icon: The Emergence of the Proto-Sunni Elite. Leiden: Brill, 1997.