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  • «Современная история исмаилитов: Преемственность и перемены в мусульманской общине»

    I. B. Tauris Publishers в сотрудничестве с Институтом Исследований Исмаилизма.

    ISBN HardBack:
    9781845 117177
  • Публикация страницы на Google Books  


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    Исмаилиты, образующие вторую по величине шиитскую мусульманскую общину, после иснаашаритов, или двунадесятников, имеют долгую и сложную историю, уходящую назад к периоду формирования Ислама. Впоследствии они оказались разделенными на ряд больших ветвей и миноритарных группировок. Однако, начиная с начала 12-го века н.э., исмаилиты существуют в виде двух основных ветвей, низаритов и тайибитовi мусталитов,, называемых в Южной Азии соответственно как ходжа и бохра. Сами тайибиты, в свою очередь, распались на несколько общин: доминантную общину дауди и миноритарные и алави. В настоящее время исмаилиты из разных общин, рассеявшись по всему миру, составляют религиозные меньшинства в более чем 25 странах Азии, Среднего Востока, Африки, Европы и Северной Америки.

     


    Исмаилиты, насчитывающие несколько миллионов, представляют множественные и разные этничности и литературные традиции и говорят на разных языках и диалектах. Мажоритарная община исмаилитов-низаритов сегодня признает Его Высочество Принца Карима Ага Хана IV своим 49-м наследным Имамом, или духовным лидером. Тайибитскими исмаилитами дауди, сулаймани и алави руководят разные линии даи, облеченные высшей властью до тех пор, пока тайибитские имамы пребывают в сокрытии и недоступны для своих последователей.


    Вплоть до середины 20-го века представления об исмаилитах носили весьма превратный характер, благодаря циркулировавшему тогда множеству мифов и легенд, искажавших их учения и практики. Все это обязано тому факту, что изучение и оценка их, как в западных, так и в мусульманских странах, основывалась на свидетельствах, поставляемых или фабрикуемых их противниками. Однако подобное восприятие и понимание исмаилитов было коренным образом опровергнуто результатами современной науки в области изучения исмаилизма, основанной на все возрастающем числе рукописных источников, созданных на разных этапах истории исмаилитов. Богатая и разнородная исмаилитская литература, открытая и изучаемая в нынешнее время, особенно начиная с 1940-х гг., в значительной мере увеличила наши знания по средневековой истории и традициям исмаилитов.


    Однако отражение современного периода исмаилитской истории, охватывающего примерно два прошедших столетия, еще не в полной мере смогло воспользоваться нынешним прогрессом в исследованиях по исмаилизму. Главная причина этого коренится в том, что адекватные письменные источники по современной истории исмаилитов в различных регионах не всегда бывают доступными; и к тому же для ученых не-исмаилитов, не обладающих достаточными языковыми навыками, все еще остается затруднительным вникнуть в богатую устную традицию, представленную в разных регионах, где исмаилиты жили веками.


    В целом, похоже, что надлежащая современная история исмаилитов все еще нуждается в большой подготовительной работе. Только тогда мы сможем придти к лучшему пониманию эволюции исмаилитских общин различных регионов, а также их наследия и литературных традиций. «Современная история исмаилитов» стала первым начинанием в этом направлении.


    Книга содержит главы, посвященные современной истории исмаилитов-низаритов нескольких регионов, где традиционно обитали их общины. Эти главы написаны по большей части исмаилитскими учеными, как молодыми, так и уже устоявшимися, обладающими необходимыми языковыми знаниями, а также близко знакомыми с устной и письменной традицией этих общин. Одна из глав посвящена описанию переселения низаритов на Запад, этому важному феномену со времен середины двадцатого века. Несколько глав посвящены реформам и институциональным инициативам двух последних низаритских Имамов, Ага хана III и Ага Хана IV, и их достижениям.


    Особый раздел отведен современной истории тайибитских исмаилитов-мусталитов, среди которых теперь доминируют дауди-бохра Южной Азии. У авторов этих тайибитских глав были большие возможности: это молодые ученые, происходящие из известной семьи внутри руководящей иерархии общины дауди-бохра, а следовательно, имевшие доступ к источникам информации, необходимой для подступа к своей теме.


    Этот коллективный сборник не следует рассматривать в качестве последнего слова по данной проблематике. Ряд глав на деле отразили скорее процесс работы, поскольку наши знания по современной истории исмаилитов все еще подвергаются постоянному пересмотру и совершенствованию. Главная цель здесь, как и в случае прочих исследований и публикаций Института, заключается в том, чтобы содействовать науке и вносить вклад в дальнейший прогресс в исмаилитские исследования.








































































































  • Preface xiii
    Note on Transliteration and Abbreviations xvi
    Notes on the Contributors xvii

    1.Introduction
    Farhad Daftary 1

    Part I. NIZARI ISMAILIS: SYRIA, CENTRAL ASIA AND CHINA
    2. Modern History of the Nizari Ismailis of Syria
    Dick Douwes 19

    3. The Nizari Ismailis of Central Asia in Modern Times
    Hakim Elnazarov and Sultonbek Aksakolov 45

    4. The Nizari Ismailis of China in Modern Times
    Amier Saidula 77

    Part II. NIZARI ISMAILIS: SOUTH ASIA AND EAST AFRICA

     

     

     
    5. From Satpanthi to Ismaili Muslim: The Articulation of Ismaili Khoja Identity in South Asia
    Ali S. Asani 95

    6. The Socio-Legal Formation of the Nizari Ismailis of East Africa, 1800–1950
    Zulfikar Hirji 129

    7. Communities of Tradition and the Modernizing of Education in South Asia: The Contribution of Aga Khaninfo-icon III
    Shiraz Thobani 161

    Part III. NIZARI ISMAILIS: CONTEMPORARY POLICIES, INSTITUTIONS AND PERSPECTIVES

     

     

     

    8. The Aga Khan Development Network and Institutions
    Malise Ruthven 189

    9. Caring for the Built Environment
    Stefano Bianca 221

    10. The Gender Policies of Aga Khan III and Aga Khan IV
    Zayn R. Kassam 247

    11. At the Interstices of Tradition, Modernity and Postmodernity: Ismaili Engagements with Contemporary Canadian Society
    Karim H. Karim 265

    Part IV. TAYYIBI MUSTA 'LIAN ISMAILIS

     

     

     
    12. History of the Daʾudi Bohrainfo-icon Tayyibisinfo-icon in Modern Times: The Daʿis, the Daʿwat and the Community
    Saifiyah Qutbuddin 297

    13. The Daʾudi Bohra Tayyibis: Ideology, Literature, Learning and Social Practice
    Tahera Qutbuddin 331

    14. A Brief Note on Other Tayyibi Communities: Sulaymanisinfo-icon and ʿAlavis
    Tahera Qutbuddin 355

    Glossary

    359
    Select Bibliography 365
    Index 381
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