This module forms a sequel to Muslim Societies and Civilisations which covers developments from the sixth to the twelfth century. It picks up the various narratives at the beginning of the eleventh century and presents encounters and exchanges among Muslims and with other societies until the beginning of the modern period at the end of the eighteenth century. It highlights key events and figures, linking them to major challenges and achievements of each age. Analyses of the interplay of forces and influences in various regions reveals unfolding dynamics in the political, economic, social, intellectual and cultural arenas. Significant aspects of the history, thought and culture of diverse Ismaili communities during this period are interwoven into these narratives of exchanges, detailing their interactions within these systems.