Lit. word. Used in the Quran with several meanings, chief among which is the Divine Word. It also refers to the formula for the declaration of faith amongst Muslims (also shahada). In Shii and Ismaili esotericism, the concept is linked to the act of creation by various thinkers such as the Ismaili Abu Yaqub al–Sijistani (d. after 971), the Twelver Mulla Sadra (d. 1640) and the Sufi Ibn al–Arabi (638/1240).